FACTORS AFFECTING CHARACTER OF RESPIRATION
Exercise increases the rate and depth of respiration to meet the body's need for additional oxygen and to rid the body of carbon dioxide.
Pain alters rate and rhythm of respiration, breathing becomes shallow Patient inhibit or splints chest wall movement when pain is in area of chest or abdomen
Anxiety increases rate and depth of respiration as a result of sympathetic stimulation.
Chronic smoking changes the pulmonary airway, resulting in increased rate of respiration at rest when not smoking.
• A straight, erect position promotes full chest expansion
• A stooped or slumped position impairs ventilatory movement.
• Lying flat prevents full chest expansion.
• Opioid analgesics, general anesthesia, sedative hypnoticsdepress the rate and depth.
• Cocaine may increase rate and depth.
• Bronchodilators slow rate by causing airway dilation.
Injury to the brain stem impairs the respiratory center and inhibits respiratory rate and depth.
• Decreased hemoglobin levels (anemia) reduce oxygen carrying capacity of the blood which increases respiratory rate.
• Increased altitude lowers the saturated hemoglobin, which increases respiratory rate and depth.
• Abnormal blood cell function (e.g. sickle cell disease) reduces ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen which increases respiratory rate and depth