Cognitive development –Jean Piaget
Stage 1 Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years)
(movement , five senses )
· Progress from simple reflex activity through simple repetitive behaviors to imitative behavior.
· Sense of cause and effect.
· Direct behavior towards objects.
· Problem solving is by trial and error.
· High level of curiosity, experimentation & enjoyment of novelty.
· Develops sense of self.
· Able to differentiate themselves from the environment.
· Aware that objects have permanence.
· Objects exists even though it is no longer visible.
· Begin to use language.
Video: Piaget - Stage 1 - Sensorimotor, Object Permenence
Stage 2 Preoperational (2-7 years)
(magical/prelogical thinking; motor skills; egocentrisim starts strong, then weakens)
· Egocentrism- inability to put oneself in the place of others.
· Interpretation of objects in terms of their relationship and use.
· Unable to see things from any other perspective their own.
· Cannot see another's point of view.
· Thinking is concrete and tangible.
· Cannot reason beyond the observable.
· Lack the ability to make deductions and generalizations.
· Thought is dominated by what they see, hear or experience.
· Increasingly able to use language and symbols to represent objects in their environment.
· Play Begins to elaborate concepts and to make simple associations between ideas.
· Reasoning is intuitive (moon has to go to bed as they do).
· Reasoning is transductive: because 2 events occur together, they cause each other.
· Big belly→baby.
Video:Piaget - Stage 2 - Preoperational - Lack of Conservation
Stage 3. Concrete operations (7-11 years)
(Begins to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking; no longer egocentric)
· Thought becomes increasingly logical and coherent.
· Able to classify, sort, order, organize facts about the world to use in problem solving.
· Develop new concept of permanence-conservation. i.e. realize that physical factors such as volume, weight and number remain the same, even though outward appearances are changed. Able to deal with number of different aspects of a situation simultaneously.
· Do not have a capacity to deal in abstraction.
· Solve the problem in a concrete, systematic fashion based on what they can perceive.
· Reasoning is inductive.
· Thought becomes less self centered.
· Can consider points of view of others.
· Thinking has become socialized.
Video: Piaget - Stage 3 - Concrete - Reversibility
Stage 4. Formal operations (11-15 years)
development of abstract (adult-level) reasoning.
· Adaptability and flexibility.
· Can think in abstract terms, use abstract symbols and draw logical conclusions from a set of observations.
· E.g. if A is larger than B and B is larger than C, which symbol is the largest?
· Can make hypothesis and test them.
· Can consider abstract, theoretic and philosophic matters
· May get confuse the ideal with practical; contradictions in the world can be dealt and resolved.
Video:Piaget - Stage 4 - Formal - Deductive Reasoning
Some People Can Fly! Explanation: to remember Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, in order Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
Other Relevant Videos:
formal operational child :