Theories of Growth and Development : Psychosocial development – Erick Erickson with Mnemonics

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Psychosocial development – Erick Erickson

           

Stage
Virtue
Development
Infant- Trust Vs  mistrust
Hope
Trust is the first and most important attribute to develop for a healthy personality.
Corresponds to Freud's oral stage. It describes all of the child's satisfying experience. It the time of "getting" and "taking in" through all the senses. It exists only in relation to something or someone. Consistent, loving care by the mother is important.
Mistrust develops when trust promoting experiences are deficient or lacking or when basic needs are inconsistently or inadequately met.
The favorable/lasting outcomes are faith and optimism

Toddler -autonomy vs shame and doubt ( 1 -3 years)
Will
Corresponds to Freud's anal stage.
The development of autonomy is centered on children's increasing ability-to control-their bodies, themselves and their environment. They want to do things for themselves using their newly acquired motor skills.
Much of their learning is acquired by imitating the activities and behavior of others.
Negative feelings of doubt and shame arise when children are made to feel small and self conscious, ,when their disastrous, when others shame them or when they are forced to be dependent in areas in which they are capable of assuming control.
The favorable/lasting outcomes are self- control and will power.

Preschooler -initiative vs guilt(3-6 years)
Purpose
Corresponds to Freud's Phallic stage.
Characterized by vigorous, intrusive behavior; enterprise; and a strong imagination. Children explore the physical world with all their senses and powers. Develop conscience. No longer guided only by outsiders, they have an inner voice that warns and threatens. Undertake activities that are in conflict with parents.lf they are made to feel that their activities or imaginings are bad, that produces guilt.
The favorable/lasting outcomes are direction and purpose.

Schooler -industry vs inferiority (6-12 years)
Competence
Corresponds to Freud's latency period.
Ready to be workers and producers. Want to engage in activities that can carry through to completion. Need and want real achievement. Learn to compete and cooperate with others. Learn rules. Decisive period in their social relationships.
If too much is expected of them or if they believe that they cannot measure up to the standards set for them by others inferiority develops.
The ego quality developed from sense of industry is competence.    

Adolescence -identity vs role confusion (12-18 years)

Fidelity
Corresponds to Freud's genital period.
Characterized by rapid and marked physical changes. Previous trust in their body is shaken. Children become overly preoccupied with the way they appear in the eyes of others compared their own self-concept.
Struggle to fit the roles that they have played.
Struggle to play with the current role.
Struggle to integrate their concepts and values with those of society.
Struggle to decide regarding an occupation.
Inability to solve the core conflict results in role confusion.
The outcome of successful mastery is devotion and fidelity to others and to values and ideologies.  

Young adult- Intimacy vs isolation (18/20-39)
Love
Tasks- Forming adult, loving relationships and meaningful attachments to others
Middle adult-Generativity vs Stagnation (40-64)
Care
Tasks-Being creative and productive; establishing the next generation
Maturity- Ego integrity vs Dispair (65-death)
Wisdom
Tasks-Accepting responsibility for one’s self and life
Mnemonics :
"The sad tale of Erikson Motors":
The stages in order by age group:

Mr. Trust and MsTrust had an auto they were ashamed of. She took the initiative to find the guilty party. She found the industry was inferior. They were making cars with dents [identity] and rolling fuses [role confusion]. Mr. N.T. Macy [intimacy] isolated the problem, General TVT absorbed the cost. In the end, they found the tires were just gritty and the should have used de- spare!

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