Institutionalization Vs Deinstitutionalization
Institutionalization is the process of committing a person to a facility where their freedom to leave will be restrained, usually mental hospital
Deinstitutionalization is a long term trend wherein fewer people reside as patients in mental hospitals and fewer mental health treatments are delivered in public hospitals.
Essential components of a sound deinstitutionalization process:
Prevention of inappropriate mental hospital admissions through the provision of community facilities
Discharge to the community of long term institutional patients who have received adequate preparation
Establishment and maintenance of community support systems of non institutionalized patients
Positive effects of deinstitutionalization
- Integration of family and social system in care of patients
- Provision of better care to mentally ill, in their home communities
- Helps in returning sense of worth, ability and independence to those who had been dependent on others for their care
Negative effects of deinstitutionalization
- Failure of implementation effectively
- Revolving door syndrome
- Emergency department use by acutely disturbed individuals has increased
- Due to increased number of patients, general hospital psychiatric units are overwhelmed
- Patients who do not receive adequate care commit homicides
- State prisons are occupied by severely mentally ill patients.
AIMS OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION
l . Prevention of harm to self and others
2.Management of severe symptoms
3.Need for a rapid, multidisciplinary diagnostic evaluation that requires frequent observation by specially trained personnel.
l . Rapid evaluation and diagnosis
2.Decreasing behavior that is dangerous to self and others
3.Preparing the patient and significant care givers to manage the patient's care in a less restrictive setting
4.Arranging for effective aftercare to facilitate continued improvement in the patients condition and functional level.