Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia


Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Ambivalence: Holding seemingly contradictory beliefs or feelings about the same person, event, or situation
Associative looseness: Fragmented or poorly related thoughts and ideas
Delusions: Fixed false beliefs that have no basis in reality
Echopraxia: Imitation of the movements and gestures of another person whom the client is observing
Flight of ideas: Continuous flow of verbalization in which the person jumps rapidly from one topic to another
Hallucinations: False sensory perceptions or perceptual experiences that do not exist in reality
Ideas of reference: False impressions that external events have special meaning for the person
Perseveration: Persistent adherence to a single idea or topic; verbal repetition of a sentence, word, or phrase; resisting attempts to change the topic
Alogia: Tendency to speak very little or to convey little substance of meaning (poverty of content)
Anhedonia: Feeling no joy or pleasure from life or any activities or relationships
Apathy: Feelings of indifference toward people, activities, and events
Blunted affect: Restricted range of emotional feeling, tone, or mood
Catatonia: Psychologically induced immobility occasionally marked by periods of agitation or excitement; the client seems motionless, as if in a trance
Flat affect: Absence of any facial expression that would indicate emotions or mood
Lack of volition: Absence of will, ambition, or drive to take action or accomplish tasks

Schizophrenia symptoms
Positive symptoms
·                 Thinking disturbed, neologisms
·                 Hallucinations, typically auditory
·                 Reduced contact with reality
·                 Emotional control affected – incongruous affect
·                 Arousal may lead to worsening of symptoms
Negative symptoms
·                 Loss of volition, under-activity, social withdrawal
·                 Emotionally flat
·                 Speech reduced, monosyllabic
·                 Slowness in movement and thought, psychomotor retardation

Schizophrenia negative symptoms
The six A‘s
·                 Affective flattening – unchanging facial expression, reduced movement, poor eye contact
·                 Alogia – poverty of speech, thought block, delayed response
·                 Anergia – loss of energy
·                 Anhedonia – loss of interest in things/sex/relationships
·                 Apathy – poor hygiene, lack of interest
·                 Asociality – not engaging with peers, little interest in sex
Amisulpride – best evidence for treatment (handily begins with A also).



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notes.nursium.com: Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
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