Cardiology Mnemonics Part 4

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Cardiology Mnemonics





Aortic dissection: risk factors ABC:

Atherosclerosis/ Ageing/ Aortic aneurysm

Blood pressure high/ Baby (pregnancy)

Connective tissue disorders (eg Marfan's, Ehlers-Danlos)/ Cystic medial necrosis


CHF: Left-sided systolic failure signs and symptoms
"Left Systolic Failure Can Have Dialated Heart Cause OPulmpnary Backflow":

Loss of hair on legs
Skin cold and clammy
Fatigue
Crackles
High heart rate
Dyspnea
HTN
Cyanosis
Orthopnea
Pink Sputum


Acute Coronary Syndrome: initial treatment ABCD:
Aspirin
Beta blocker
Coagulation (anticoagulation with heparin/LMW Heparin)
Double product control (decrease heart rate and blood pressure)


Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension


ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT:
Ischemia
Normality [esp. young, black]
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]
RBBB, LBBB
Treatments [digoxin]


Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria JONES:
Joints (migrating polyarthritis)
Obvious, the heart (carditis, pancarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis or valvulits)
Nodes (subcutaneous nodules)
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham's chorea



Rheumatic fever: Jones 5 major criteria STREP:
Sydenhams chorea
Transient migratory arthritis
Rheumatic subcutaneous nodules
Erythema marginatum
Pancarditis (endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis) ·
STREP, since Rheumatic fever is caused by group A strep.





Myocardial infarctions: treatment INFARCTIONS:
IV access
Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine, pethidine)
Facilities for defibrillation (DF)
Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)
Rest
Converting enzyme inhibitor
Thrombolysis
IV beta blocker
Oxygen 60%
Nitrates
Stool Softeners


Atrial fibrillation: causes PIRATES:
Pulmonary: PE, COPD
Iatrogenic
Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation
Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD
Thyroid: hyperthyroid
Endocarditis
Sick sinus syndrome


Atrial fibrillation: management ABCD:
Anti-coagulate
Beta-block to control rate
Cardiovert
Digoxin


Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes "DBlock AV":
Digoxin
B-blockers
Adenosine
Verapamil


Murmurs: systolic MR PV TRAPS:
Mitral
Regurgitation and
Prolaspe
VSD
Tricupsid
Regurgitation
Aortic and
Pulmonary
Stenosis


Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat DOPES:
Dextrocardia
Obesity
Pericarditis/ Pericardial tamponade/ Pneumothorax
Emphysema
Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence/ Scoliosis/ Skeletal abnormalities (eg pectus excavatum)



Mitral regurgitation When you hear holosy stolic murmurs, think "MR-THEM ARE holosy stolic murmurs".


Sino-atrial node:
innervation Sympathetic acts on  Sodium channels (SS). Parasympathetic acts on Potassium channels (PS).


Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment ABCDE:
Adenosine
Beta-blocker
Calcium channel antagonist
Digoxin
Excitation (vagal stimulation)


Ventricular tachycardia: treatment LAMB:
Lidocaine
Amiodarone
Mexiltene/ Magnesium
Beta-blocker 

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