Pathology Mnemonics part 2

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Pathology Mnemonics



MI: post-MI complications ACT
RAPID:
Arrhythmias (SVT, VT, VF)
Congestive cardiac failure Tamponade/ Thromboembolic disorders
Rupture (ventricle, septum, papillary muscle) Aneurysm (ventricle)
Pericarditis
Infaction (a second one)
Death/ Dressler's sy ndrome


Hypersplenism: criteria "Hy per Splenism Ravages Cells":
Hy percellular or normal marrow
Splenomegaly
Response to splenectomy Cy topenias


Whipple's disease: full features WHIPPLES:
Weight loss
Hy perpigmentation of skin
Infection with tropheryma whippelii
PAS positiv e granules in macrophage
Poly arthritis
Ly mphadenopathy
Enteric involvement Steatorrhea


Pick's disease: features PICK:
Progressive degeneration of neurons
Intracytoplasmic Pick bodies
Cortical atrophy Knife edge gyri


Alzheimer's disease (AD): associations, findings AD: · Associations:
Aluminum toxicity
Acetylcholine deficiencies
Amyloid B
Apolipoprotein gene E
Altered nucleus basalis of Mey nert
Down's
· Findings: Actin inclusions (Hirano bodies)
Atrophy of brain
Amyloid plaques
Aphasia, Apraxia, Agitation
DNA-coiled tangles
Dementia, Disoriented, Depressed


Osteomalacia: features "Vit-D deficiency in ADULT": Acetabuli protrusio
Decresed bone density
Under mineralization of osteoid
Looser's zone (pseudofracture)
Triradiate pelvis (females)


Anemia (normocytic): causes ABCD:
Acute blood loss
Bone marrow failure
Chronic disease
Destruction (hemolysis)


Phaeochromocytoma: diagnositc rule · Rule of 10's:
10% ectopic
10% multiple
10% malignant


Hematuria: urethral causes NUTS: Neoplasm
Urethritis
Tumour Stone


CREST sydrome: components CREST:
Calcinosis
Ray naud's phenomena
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangectasia


TTP: clinical features Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia  
PARTNER together:
Platelet count low
Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic)
Renal failure
Temperature rise
Neurological deficits
ERadmission (as it is an emergency)


Pancreatitis: causes BAD S#!T:
Biliary: gallstones, 1% of ERCP patients Alcoholism/ Azotemia
Drugs
Scorpion bite/ Sea anenome/ SLE
Hy perlipidemia/ Hypercalcemia Idiopathic/ Infectious (mumps, coxsackie, salmonella, ascariasis)
Tumor/ Trauma
· The drugs are: penacillamine, furosemide, thiazides, ethacrynic acid, steroids, sulfas, ace inhibitors, NSAIDs, erythromycin, estrogen.


Fragile-X syndrome: features DSM-4: Discontinued chromosome staining
Shows anticipation
Male (male more affected) Mental retardation (2nd most common genetic cause) Macrognathia
Macroorchidism


Endometrial carcinoma: risk factors HONDA: Hy pertension
Obesity
Nulliparity
Diabetes
Age (increased)


Kawasaki's disease: features FEAR ME: Fev er
Ey e: perilimbic sparing conjunctival injection Adenopathy: usually cervical
Rash
Mouth: red lips
Extremities: red hands and feet
· Disease to be feared because of risk of coronary aneurysms.


Pheochromocytoma: common symptoms 5 P's:
Paroxysmal rise in BP
Palpitations
Perspiration
Pain in abdomen PMV in urine


IBD: extraintestinal manifestations "Left intestine to sail the SEAS of the rest of the body": Skin manifestations: erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum
Ey e inflammation: iritis, episcleritis
Arthritis
Sclerosing cholangitis


MI: complications "LEAP on the MAP": LVF
Embolism (systemic)
Aneurysm (ventricular)
Progressive infarction
My ocardial rupture
Arrhythmia
Pericarditis


Portal hypertension: features ABCDE:
Ascites
Bleeding (haematemesis, piles)
Caput medusae
Diminished liver Enlarged spleen


Alzheimer's disease: features RONALD (Ronald Reagan, a famous victim): Reduction of Ach
Old age
Neurofibrillary tangles
Atrophy of cerebral cortex (diffuse)
Language impairment Dementia (MC in elderly)/ Down's sy ndrome


Gout: major features GOUT: Great toe
One joint (75% monoarticular)
Uric acid increased (hence urolithiasis) Tophi


Seronegative spondyloarthopathy: diseases RAPE:
Reiter's sy ndrome
Ankylosing spondylitis
Psoriatic arthitis
Enteropathic arthitis (IBD)


Protein C, Protein S: function C and S are: Clot
Stoppers
· These proteins inhibit coagulation.


Melanoma vs. basal cell, squamous cell carcinoma: metastatic ability MElanoma is more likely to MEtastasize. · Basal and squamous hardly ever metastasize.


Hepatocellular carcinoma: aetiology, features ABC: Aetiology:
Aflatoxins
Hep B
Cirrhosis · Features:
AFP increased (classic marker) Bile-producing (DDx from cholangiocarcinoma) Commonest primary liver tumor


Goitre: differential GOITRE:
Goitrogens
Onset of puberty Iodine deficiency
Thyrotoxicosis/ Tumor/ Thyroiditis
[Hashimoto's]
Reproduction [pregnancy] Enzy me deficiencies


Renal failure (chronic): consequences ABCDEFG: Anemia
-due to less EPO
Bone alterations
-osteomalacia
-osteoporosis
-v on Recklinghausen Cardiopulmonary
-atherosclerosis
-CHF
-hy pertension
-pericarditis
D v itamin loss
Electrolyte imbalance
-sodium loss/gain
-metabolic acidosis
-hy perkalemia
Fev erous infections -due to leukocyte abnormalities and dialysis hazards GI disturbances
-haemorrhagic gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease
-intractable hiccups


Adrenal disorders: Cushing's vs Addison's Cushing: is Gushing cortisol. In Addison's: patient's cortisol doesn't Add up.


Aneurysm types MAD SCAB:
My cotic
Atherosclerotic
Dissecting
Sy philitic
Capillary microaneurysm
Arteriovenous fistula Berry


Nephrotic syndrome: hallmark findings "Protein LEAC":
Proteinuria
Lipid up
Edema
Albumin down Cholesterol up
· In nephrotic, the proteins leakout. 

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notes.nursium.com: Pathology Mnemonics part 2
Pathology Mnemonics part 2
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