Pathology Mnemonics Part 1

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Pathology Mnemonics




 
Colon carcinoma: aeitiology CRAPS:
Chronic ulcerative colitis
Ratio of animal fat:fibre diet
Adenomatous polyps
Familial Polyposis
Strong family history of colon cancer.


Kawasaki Disease Criteria "Be careful when riding a  
Kawasaki motorcycle, you might get CREAMed.
Conjunctivitis (non-exudative)
Rash (polymorphous non-vesicular)
Edema (or erythema of hands or feet)
Adenopathy (cervical, often unilateral) Mucosal involvement (erythema or fissures or crusting) To have Kawasaki disease you must have fever for greater than 5 days plus
4 of the above.


Neurofibromatoses: chromosome mutation locations in von Reckinghausen (type I) vs. type II "von Recklinghausen" has 17 letters and is due to a mutation on chromosome 17. "Neurofibromatosis type 2" has 22 and is due to a mutation on chromosome 22.


Wernickes encephalopathy: components WACO:
· Wernickes is:
Ataxia
Confusion (or clouded consciousness)
Ocular problems · Note: Waco is the town in Texas, USA made famous for a standoff with a
Dav id
Koresh and the Branch Davidians.


Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): causes ARDS:
Aspiration/ Acute pancreatitis/ Air embolism/ Amniotic
embolism Radiation DIC/ Drugs/ Drowning/ Dialysis/ Diff use lung infection Shock/ Sepsis/ Smoke inhalation


Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad WASTER:
Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome is:
Thrombocytopenia
Eczema
Recurrent staphlococcal infections


Cardiovascular risk factors
(Framingham) FRAMINGHAM:
Family history
Running (exercise) Adiposity (obesity)
Marlboros (tobacco)
Insulin resistance (diabetes)
Non-regulated lipids (dyslipidaemia)
Georgie Pie (high fat diet)
Hypertension
Age
Male


Macrocytosis: Non-B12/folate causes ALPHA NERD:
Alcohol
Liv er disease
Pregnancy
Hemaolysis (especially chronic)
Agglutination
Neoplasia (including myelodysplasia)
Endocrine (hypothyroidism)
Reticulocytes
Drugs (especially myelosuppressives like chemotherapy, anti-HIV meds)


Osteomyelitis: complications FIBRES:
Fractures
Intraosseous (broidie) abscesses
Bacteremi/ Brodie abscess
Reactive amyloidosis
Endocarditis
Sinus tracts/ Squamous cell CA


Polycystic ovarian disease: clinical features OHIO:
Oligomenorrhea
Hirsutism
Infertility
Obesity


Microcytic anemia: causes "Find Those Small
Cells":
Fe deficiency
Thalassemia
Sideroblastic
Chronic disease


Hirsutism vs. virilism 
Hirsutism: Hair on body like a male. 
Virilism: Voice and rest of secondary sexual characteristics like a male.


Megaloblastic anemia: vitamin B12 deficiency vs. folate deficiency 
Vitamin B12 deficiency also affects Brain (optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, paresthesia). · Folate deficiency is not associated with neurological symptoms.


Symptoms of TTP/HUS "Nasty Fever Ruined My Tubes":
Neurological symptoms
Fev er
Renal failure
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia Thrombocytopenia


Hemophilia: type A factor Hemophilia A: problems with VIII factor (number V as an inv erted A).


Thyroid carcinoma: frequency "Please Feel My A$$":
In order of most frequent to least frequent, and in order from least aggressive to most aggressive: Papillary carcinoma
Follicular carcinoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma Anaplastic carcinoma Cardiovascular risk factors FLASH BODIES:
Family history
Lipids
Age
Sex
Homocy stinaemia
Blood pressure
Obesity
Diabetes mellitus Inflammation (raised CRP)/ Increased thrombosis Exercise
Smoking


Hypokalaemia: clinical features TIMID CHIMP: Tetany
Increases paralytic ileus (aggravates)
Muscle weakness
Increases possibility of hepatic encephalopathy Digoxin toxicity
Cardiac arrythmias
Hy potonia
Increases P-R interval, T wave and prominent U wave Muscle cramps Poly uria


Diabetes: short list of complications SHAKE:
Stroke
Heart attack
Amputations
Kidney disease
Ey es (vision loss)


Nephritic syndrome: glomerular diseases commonly presenting as nephritic syndrome PARIS:
Post-streptococcal
Alport's
RPGN
IgA nephropathy
SLE
· Alternatively: PIG ARMS to include Goodpasture's [one cause of RPGN], Membranoproliferative [only sometimes included in the classic nephritic list].


Osteosarcoma: features PEARL HARBOR:
Paget's disease (10-20%)*
Early age (10-20 yrs)
Around knee
Raised periosteum by expanding tumor: "sunburst pattern" Lace-like architecture
Hy aline arteoriosclerosis
Alkaline phosphatase increased
Retinoblastoma*
Boy s, predominantly
Osteomyelitis DDx
Radiation* · Sunburst pattern was Japanese Navy emblem during WWII.
*: Predisposing factors.


Edwards' syndrome: characteristics EDWARDS:
Eighteen (trisomy)
Digit ov erlapping flexion
Wide head
Absent intellect (mentally retarded)
Rocker-bottom feet
Diseased heart
Small lower jaw


Fragile X syndrome: features FEMALES
FMR1 gene
Exhibits anticpation
Macro-orchidism
Autism
Long face with large jaw
Ev erted eyes Second most common casue of genetic mental retardation


Achalasia: 1 possible cause, 1 treatment aCHAlasia:
1 possible cause: CHAgas' disease
1 treatment: Ca++ CHAnnel blockers


Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs.
chronic disease TIBC lev els at the:
Top=Iron deficiency.
Bottom=Chronic disease.


Colon cancer: risk factors HULA:
Heridity/ Heriditary diseases
Ulcerative colitis
Low fibre, high fat diet Adenomatous polyps


COPD: blue bloater vs. pink puffer diseases emPhysema has letter P (and not B) so Pink Puffer. chronic Bronchitis has letter B (and not P) so Blue Bloater.


Macrocytic anaemia: differential FAT RBC:
Fetus (pregnancy)
Alcohol
Thyroid disease(ie hypothyroidism)
Reticulocytosis
B12 and folate deficiency
Cirrhosis and chronic liver disease

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notes.nursium.com: Pathology Mnemonics Part 1
Pathology Mnemonics Part 1
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