Microbiology Mnemonics Collection part -3

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 Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis
 Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only.
 MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter.
 · Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it's the classic test
 to distinguish the Neisseria types.

 RNA viruses: negative stranded "Orthodox Rhabbi's
 Party Around Fine Bunnies":
 Orthomyxo
 Rhabdo
 Paramyxo
 Arena
 Filo
 Bunya

 RNA viruses: positive stranded "Pico Called 
 Flavio To Return Renzo's Corona":
 Picorna
 Calici
 Flavi
 Toga
 Retro
 Reo
 Corona

 Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it "High Tech
 Lab Results Point At Endocarditis":
 Hematuria
 Thrombocytopenia
 Leukocytosis, -penia
 Red blood cell casta
 Proteinuria
 Anemia
 Elevated ESR

 Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis "With
 Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus 
 Attention Somewhere Meaningful":
 Wrong diagnosis
 Noninfectious endocarditis
 Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course)
 obligate Intracellular organisms
 Slow growing fastidious organisms
 Fungal infection
 Antibiotic used previously
 Subacute right-sided endocarditis
 Mural endocarditis

 Endocarditis: indications for surgery PUS RIVER:
 Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases)
 Uncontrolled infection
 Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities
 Resection of mycotic aneurysm
 Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi)
 Valvular damage (significant)
 Embolization (repeated systemic)
 Refractory congestive heart failure

 Meningitis: risk factors "Can Induce Severe
 Attacks Of Head PAINS":
 Cancer
 Immunocompromised state
 Sinusitis
 Age extremes
 Otitis
 Head trauma
 Parameningeal infection
 Alcoholism
 Infections (systemic, esp. respiratory)
 Neurosurgical procedures
 Splenectomy

 HIV infection: high-risk groups HIV:
 Homosexuals/ Hemophiliacs
 IVdrug abusers

 Trichomaniasis: features · 5 F's:
 Flagella
 Frothy discharge
 Fishy odor (sometimes)
 Fornication (STD)
 Flagyl (metronidazole) Rx

 Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion "ATE eggs":
 Ascaris Lumbricoides
 Trichuris trichuira
 Enterobius vermicularis
 spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)

 Food poisoning: bugs inducing "Eating Contaminated
 Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit":
 E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]
 Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]
 Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]
 Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood]
 Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]
 Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]
 Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]
 Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]

 B19 virus: at-risk groups B19 affects 3 B's:
 Babies (5th disease, infectiousum erythematosa)
 Black Bleeders (sickle cell anemics - anaplastic anemic crisis)
 Bearing Babies [pregnant women] (hydrops fetalis)

 IgA protease-producing bacteria "Nice Strip of Ham":
 Neisseria
 Streptococcus pneumonia
 Haemophilus influenza

 Hemophilius: culture requirements Read Hemophilus as "HemoFive":
 · Needs Heme with Factors Fiveand Ten.

 DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumb DNA:
 Double-stranded
 Nuclear replication
 'Anhedral symmetry
 · Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded).

 Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors SMASHED:
 Streptolysins
 M protein
 Anti-C5a peptidase
 Streptokinase
 Hyaluronidase
 Exotoxin
 DNAses

 Gram positive stain
 Gram Positives Stain Purple (violet-blue)
 because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer

 Gram+: bacterial cell wall ·
Gram+ has:
 +hick pepidoglycan layer.
 +eichoic acid in wall.


Listeria: motility Istanbul sounds like Listambul =
 list + tumble.
 Listeria has tumblingmotility.

 Staphylococci: novobiocin test to distinguish coagulase negative
 staphylococci Staph epidermidis stays away from the novobiocin
 disc like an epidemic.
 · Therefore, epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin.
 Staph saprophyticus, much friendlier, comes up to the disc and says, "'sap?'"
 [short for "whassup?", ie "what's up"].
 · Therefore, saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant.

 Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation
 "Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke":
 Sore throat: 1 week ago
 Face bloat: facial edema
 Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine
 · Alternatively, short version: "Throat, bloat and coke".

 Streptococci: classification by hemolytic ability Gamma:
 Garbage (no hemolytic activity).
 Alpha: Almost (almost lyse, but incomplete).
 Beta: Best (complete lysis).

 Streptococci: Quellung reaction: positive sign, Strep type confirmed
 "Quell-lung":
 Quell: Capsules swell [+ve test].
 Lung: S. pnuemonia [type confirmed].
 · You get pneumonia in your lung.


E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors 
 DUNG:
 Diarrhea
 UTI
 Neonatal meningitis
 Gram negative sepsis
 · Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.

 Streptococcus pyrogenes: antibody SPAM:
 Streptococcus Pyogenes: Antibody to Mprotein.

 Staphylococcus aureus: diseases caused SOFT PAINS:
 Skin infections
 Osteomyelitis
 Food poisoning
 Toxic shock syndrome
 Pneumonia
 Acute endocarditis
 Infective arthritis
 Necrotizing fasciitis
 Sepsis


 Meningitis: most common organisms NHS:
 Neisseria meningitidis
 Hemophilus Influenzae
 Streptococcus pneumonia
 ·The cause of the most Severe meningitis is Streptococcus.
 · Note: NHS is an acronym for National Health Service in several countries.


Syphilis vs. H. ducreyi (chancroid): which ulcer is painful
 "In du-crey-i, you do cry (because it is painful)":
 In H. ducreyi, the ulcer is painful, in syphilis the ulcer is painless.

 Diphtheria toxin properties ABCDEF:
 A/B-type toxin. Made by
 Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which binds to
 EF-2 (elongation factor 2).

 RNA viruses: negative stranded "Always Bring
 Polymerase Or Fail Replication":
 Arena
 Bunya
 Paramyxo
 Orthomyxo
 Filo
 Rhabdo


Note: Negative RNA viruses need there own polymerase.

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notes.nursium.com: Microbiology Mnemonics Collection part -3
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