BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms: Hypervolemia

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HYPERVOLEMIA
Hypervolemia, or fluid overload, is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the blood
Causes
·         Excessive IV fluid administration
·         Heart failure
·         Renal failure    
·         Primary polydipsia
·         SIADH
·         Cushing's syndrome
·         Long term use of corticosteroids
·         Cirrhosis of liver

Pathophysiology:
Fluid overload → increased hydrostatic pressure in arterial end of capillary → fluid movement into tissues →edema
Increased peripheral vascular resistance
Increased  left ventricular pressure
Increased left arterial pressure
Pulmonary edema
Clinical Features:
·         Head ache, confusion, lethargy
·         Peripheral edema
·         Distended neck veins
·         Bounding pulse. Increased BP and CVP
·         Polyuria
·         Dyspnea, cough, Crackles, pulmonary edema
·         Pleural effusion
·         Muscle spasm
·         Weight gain
·         Seizures, coma
Management
·         Identify the primary cause and treat
·         Fluid restriction
·         Promoting urine output - Diuretics
·         Restriction of sodium intake
·         Paracentesis     
·         Dialysis
Nursing intervention
·         Monitor BP
·         Assess intake and output at regular intervals to identify excessive fluid retention.  
·         Monitor weight daily and acute weight gain is noted. An acute weight gain of 0.9 kg represents a gain of approximately 1L of fluid.
·         Assess breath sounds at regular intervals in at-risk patients, particularly when parenteral fluids are being administered.   

·         Monitor the degree of edema

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notes.nursium.com: BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms: Hypervolemia
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