BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms: Hyperkalemia

SHARE:

HYPERKALEMIA
Definition:
It is defined as an elevation of serum potassium level greater than 5mEq/L.
Mostly affects more than half of people with acute and chronic renal failure.
Etiology
1)Excessive potassium intake:
·         Excessive or rapid parenteral administration
·         Potassium containing drugs( Potassium penicillin)
·         Potassium containing salt substitute
2)Shift of potassium out of cells
·         Acidosis
·         Tissue catabolism
·         Crash injury 
·         Tumor Lysis syndrome
3)Failure to eliminate potassium
·         Renal disease
·         Potassium sparing diuretics
·         Adrenal insufficiency
·         ACE inhibitors
Clinical features
Initially:
·         Cramping leg pain, followed by weakness or paralysis of skeletal muscles.  
·         Disturbances in cardiac conduction
·         Flattening of the P wave and widened QRS complex, short QT interval and narrow and  peaked T wave.
·         Abdominal cramping and diarrhoea
Other symptoms:
·         Irritability, Anxiety, Weakness of lower extremities, Paresthesia, Irregular pulse
Severe cases
·         Convulsions and neuromuscular weakness progressing to flaccid paralysis and respiratory muscle paralysis, Cardiac arrest
Diagnosis
·         History and physical examination.
·         Blood and urine studies.
·         Plasma electrolytes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and bicarbonate levels.
·         Elevated BUN and plasma creatinine levels
·         ABG analysis.
·         ECG
MANAGEMENT
            It depends on the degree of hyperkalemia as determined by the plasma K+ concentration, associated muscle weakness and changes on the ECG.
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT:
The goals of the medical management are to correct the potassium level as quickly as possible to prevent life threatening complications
Mild Hyperkalemia:
·         If the plasma potassium level is less than 5.5mEq/L, dietary restriction of potassium may be all needed.
·         Improving the urine output by forcing fluids, giving IV saline, or giving potassium wasting diuretics usually corrects mild hyperkalemia.
Severe Hyperkalemia:
·         Infusion of 10 ml of 10% Calcium gluconate IV over 5min to decrease the antagonistic effect of the potassium excess on the myocardium.
·         Infusion of regular Insulin with 50% Glucose IV.
·         B2 agonist (Albuterol) nebulization - temporarily pushes potassium into the cell.
·         Sodium bicarbonate to correct acidosis.
·         Beta adrenergic agonist- ( Epinephrine) Rarely used.
Persistent Hyperkalemia:
·         Sodium polystyrene sulfonate: A resin that binds Potassium in the GI tract may be given orally or rectally.
·         In marked renal failure, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis may be needed.
NURSING MANAGEMENT:
 Assessment
 History and physical examination  
Nursing diagnosis

·         Hyperkalemia related renal dysfunction or burns, traumatic injuries. 

Find The Other Common Signs And Symptoms Notes Here



Find The Other Common Signs And Symptoms Notes Here
Click ME

COMMENTS

Name

anaphysio,3,ASEPSIS AND INFECTION CONTROL,9,audio,1,biochemistry,2,blog,1,BSN Notes: Assessment in Psychiatry,6,BSN Notes: Burns,11,BSN Notes: Care of Terminally Ill Patients,6,BSN Notes: Childhood and Developmental Disorders,6,BSN Notes: Common Behavioural and Social Problems,4,BSN Notes: Common Childhood Diseases,7,BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms,32,BSN Notes: Community Mental Health Nursing,12,BSN Notes: Critical Care,12,BSN Notes: Disaster and Emergency,15,BSN Notes: ENT,8,BSN Notes: Eye,25,BSN Notes: History and Assessment,24,BSN Notes: Introduction of Psychiatry,27,BSN Notes: Legal Issues In Psychiatry,4,BSN Notes: Medication Administration,24,BSN Notes: Neuritic_Stress related and Somatization Disorders,10,BSN Notes: Neurology,6,BSN Notes: Oncological Nursing,8,BSN Notes: Organic Brain Disorders,1,BSN Notes: Oxygenation,3,BSN Notes: Personality_Sexual and Eating Disorders,5,BSN Notes: Principles and Concepts of Psychiatry Nursing,2,BSN Notes: Psych-pharmacology and Other Treatment Modalities,30,BSN Notes: Psychiatry Emergencies and Crisis Intervention,4,BSN Notes: Psychosocial Needs,5,BSN Notes: Schizophrenia and othe Psychotic Disorders,4,BSN Notes: The healthy child,5,BSN Notes: TNPR,9,BSN Notes: Urinary Elimination,14,chn,41,clinicalkannada,4,clinicals1,35,clinicals2,10,clinicals3,26,clinicals4,11,Code of Ethics,3,community,7,Critical thinking,7,drugs,3,Equipment & Linen,9,Equipments & Linen,1,Etics and Legal,1,exa,1,exam,11,featured,19,fon,141,fon3,141,fun,1,geriatric,1,graphic,1,Growth and Development,5,he,93,hotspot,6,kannada,54,language,1,Machinery,10,Medications,1,Memory Tools,9,mhn,126,microbiology,3,misc,2,mnemonics,48,msn,137,NCLEX,13,ncp,27,news,4,obg,28,OBG Medications,1,Peri- operative Nursing,2,pharma,29,Physical Examination and Assessment,9,Psychology,2,Pulse,7,resources,1,Respiration,4,Transitional care,1,Ventilators,5,voice,2,
ltr
item
notes.nursium.com: BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms: Hyperkalemia
BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms: Hyperkalemia
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-uzIbYl8D5_Q/WQXpXvQnfUI/AAAAAAAAc6Q/Q4090WNeaVMoP_Dv9_ze2GOrPRPkNY_QQCLcB/s640/COMMON%2BSIGNS%2BAND%2BSYMPTOMS.png
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-uzIbYl8D5_Q/WQXpXvQnfUI/AAAAAAAAc6Q/Q4090WNeaVMoP_Dv9_ze2GOrPRPkNY_QQCLcB/s72-c/COMMON%2BSIGNS%2BAND%2BSYMPTOMS.png
notes.nursium.com
https://notes.nursium.com/2017/04/bsn-notes-common-signs-and-symptoms_79.html
https://notes.nursium.com/
https://notes.nursium.com/
https://notes.nursium.com/2017/04/bsn-notes-common-signs-and-symptoms_79.html
true
3454605208880343795
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS CONTENT IS PREMIUM Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy