BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms: Edema

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Edema
·         an abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin, or in one or more cavities of the body.
·         Edema is observable swelling from fluid accumulation in body tissues. Edema most commonly occurs in the feet and legs, where it is referred to as peripheral edema.
Causes
·         Consumption of more salt 
·         Heart failure
·         Kidney disease
·         Liver problems from cirrhosis
·         Pregnancy
·         Problems with lymph nodes, especially after mastectomy
·         Renal edema Pulmonary edema Cerebral edema

Edema is facilitated (increased) by
·         Increased hydrostatic pressure and reduced oncotic pressure within blood vessels.
·         By increased blood vessel wall permeability as in inflammation
·         By obstruction of fluid clearance via the lymphatics
 Generalized edema
·         A rise in hydrostatic pressure occurs in cardiac failure.
·         A fall in oncotic pressure occurs in nephrotic syndrome and liver failure.
Pitting edema
Pitting edema can be demonstrated by applying pressure to the swollen area by depressing the skin with a finger.
If the pressing causes an indentation that persists for some time after the release of the pressure, the edema is referred to as pitting edema.
Idiopathic edema
Idiopathic edema is a pitting edema of unknown cause that occurs primarily in pre-menopausal women who do not have evidence of heart, liver, or kidney disease.
Venous insufficiency & edema
The veins of the legs have valves that prevent the backward flow of blood within them. Venous insufficiency is incompetence of the veins that occurs because of dilation, or enlargement, of the veins and dysfunction of their valves. Example: Varicose veins.
Anasarca
 Is known, as "extreme generalized edema is a medical condition characterized by widespread swelling of the skin due to effusion of fluid into the extracellular space.
Management
·         treating the underlying conditions.
·         Restricting salt intake
·         Diuretics
Nurses Responsibility
·         Maintaining intake & output chart
·         Daily Weight monitoring
·         Checking abdominal girth
·         Vital signs checking

·         Restriction of salt

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notes.nursium.com: BSN Notes: Common Signs And Symptoms: Edema
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