AIDS pathogens (T-cell suppression) worth knowing "The
 Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell
 Toxoplasma gondii
 M. avium intracellulare
 Pneumocystis carinii
 Candida albicans
 Cryptococcus neoformans
 Cryptosporidium parvum

 Tetanus: treatment for infection SAD RAT:

 Placenta-crossing organisms/ antenatal Infections STARCH:
 Herpes/ Hepatitis

 Typhus: Epidemic Typhus: etiologic agent, vector ePidemic
 Etiological agent: Rickettsia Prowazekii.
 Vector: Pediculus corporis (human body louse).
 · This is in contrast to Endemic typhus.

 Capsulated bacteria "Some Bacteria Have
 An Effective Paste Surrounding Membrane Yielding
 Pseudo Fort, Bypassing Killing":
 Strep pneumonia
 H. influenza
 Anthrax (B. anthracis)
 E. coli
 Menigitidis (N. Menigitidis)
 Yersinia pestis

 Hepatitis: transmission routes "Vowels are bowels":
 Hepatitis A and E transmitted by fecal-oralroute.

 Capsulated microbes "Some Nasty Killers
 Have Some Capsule Protection":
 Streptococcus pneumoniae
 Neisseria meningitidis
 Klebsiella pnemoniae
 Haemophilus influenzae
 Salmonella typhi
 Cryptococcus neoformans
 Pseudomanas aerigenosa

 Pneumonia: causes: gram negative vs. gram positive Gram Negatives
 (eg coliforms) are responsible mainly for Nosocomial pneumonia.
 Gram positives (eg strep pneumonia, staph) are thus more responsible for
 community acquired pneumonia.

 Klebsiella details You tell the patient: "Get UPS you
 fat alcoholic":
 Fat capsule
 Get up=nonmotile since no flagella.
 Alcoholic=commonly seen in alcoholicand nosocomial patients.

 Pseudomonas details · See diagram of patient.
 Patient: bug commonly infects nosocomial.
 Oxygen tank: oxidase positive.
 IV bag: has glucose and lactose, so its OK to give because its a nonlactose
 Why giving oxygen? Because it commonly caused pneumonia.
 IV in the arm: supposed to signify sepsis.
 The foley: UTI.
 Burn on his foot: can infect burns.

 Leprosy: early signs diagnostic criteria "LEProsy":
 Loss of sensation in affected skin/ Loss of function (paralysis)
 Enlargement of affected superficial nerves (tender too)
 Positive identification of M. leprae under microscope

 Kidney transplant virus "Borrowed Kidney":
 BKvirus is associated with kidney transplants.

 Endotoxin features ENDOTOXIN:
 Endothelial cells/ Edema
 Negative (gram- bacteria)
 DIC/ Death
 Outer membrane
 X-tremely heat stable
 Nitric oxide/ Neutrophil chemotaxis

 Mycobacterium tuberculosis: culture identification "Rough,
 Tough, Buff":
 Rough: colony isn't smooth but rough like breadcrumbs.
 Tough: colony stuck to plate well, and tough to remove.
 Buff: buff is a color, a cream/coffee shade.

 Vibrio: motility "Vibrio Vibrates":
 Vibrio is a genus of actively motile bacteria.

 Toxoplasma gondii: manifestations "My Cat Eats
 Mononucleosis-like illness
 Chorioretinits/ Congenital infection

 Chlamydia: elementary vs. initial body location Elementary:
 Initial: Intracellular

 Trypanosoma brucei: disease caused "I went on a TRYP
 to AFRICA":
 TRYPanosoma brucei causes AFRICAn sleeping sickness

 RNA enveloped viruses FORT ABC, Puerto Rico:
 Flavivirus/ Filo

 Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms ToRCHeS:
 Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E
 · Alternatively: TORCHES: with Others (parvo, listeria), add HIV
 to H's, Enteroviruses.

 E. coli: major subtypes, key point of each "HIT by E.
 coli outbreak":
 · HUS from Hamburgers
 · Immune-mediated Inflammation
 · Traveller's diarrhea

 Obligate anaerobes: members worth knowing ABC:

 Common cold: viral causes "Common cold (acute infectious
 rhinitis, coryza) is PRIMArily caused by":
 Influenza viruses

 Streptococcus pyogenes: diseases caused NIPPLES:
 Necrotising fasciitis and myositis
 Erysipelas and cellulitis
 Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS

 Picornavirus: features PICORNAvirus:
 Positive sense

 Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis
 Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only.
 MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter.
 · Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it's the classic test
 to distinguish the Neisseria types.

 RNA viruses: negative stranded "Orthodox Rhabbi's
 Party Around Fine Bunnies":

 RNA viruses: positive stranded "Pico Called 
 Flavio To Return Renzo's Corona":

 Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it "High Tech
 Lab Results Point At Endocarditis":
 Leukocytosis, -penia
 Red blood cell casta
 Elevated ESR

 Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis "With
 Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus 
 Attention Somewhere Meaningful":
 Wrong diagnosis
 Noninfectious endocarditis
 Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course)
 obligate Intracellular organisms
 Slow growing fastidious organisms
 Fungal infection
 Antibiotic used previously
 Subacute right-sided endocarditis
 Mural endocarditis

 Endocarditis: indications for surgery PUS RIVER:
 Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases)
 Uncontrolled infection
 Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities
 Resection of mycotic aneurysm
 Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi)
 Valvular damage (significant)
 Embolization (repeated systemic)
 Refractory congestive heart failure

 Meningitis: risk factors "Can Induce Severe
 Attacks Of Head PAINS":
 Immunocompromised state
 Age extremes
 Head trauma
 Parameningeal infection
 Infections (systemic, esp. respiratory)
 Neurosurgical procedures

 HIV infection: high-risk groups HIV:
 Homosexuals/ Hemophiliacs
 IVdrug abusers

 Trichomaniasis: features · 5 F's:
 Frothy discharge
 Fishy odor (sometimes)
 Fornication (STD)
 Flagyl (metronidazole) Rx

 Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion "ATE eggs":
 Ascaris Lumbricoides
 Trichuris trichuira
 Enterobius vermicularis
 spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)

 Food poisoning: bugs inducing "Eating Contaminated
 Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit":
 E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]
 Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]
 Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]
 Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood]
 Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]
 Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]
 Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]
 Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]

 B19 virus: at-risk groups B19 affects 3 B's:
 Babies (5th disease, infectiousum erythematosa)
 Black Bleeders (sickle cell anemics - anaplastic anemic crisis)
 Bearing Babies [pregnant women] (hydrops fetalis)

 IgA protease-producing bacteria "Nice Strip of Ham":
 Streptococcus pneumonia
 Haemophilus influenza

 Hemophilius: culture requirements Read Hemophilus as "HemoFive":
 · Needs Heme with Factors Fiveand Ten.

 DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumb DNA:
 Nuclear replication
 'Anhedral symmetry
 · Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded).

 Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors SMASHED:
 M protein
 Anti-C5a peptidase

 Gram positive stain
 Gram Positives Stain Purple (violet-blue)
 because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer

 Gram+: bacterial cell wall ·
Gram+ has:
 +hick pepidoglycan layer.
 +eichoic acid in wall.

Listeria: motility Istanbul sounds like Listambul =
 list + tumble.
 Listeria has tumblingmotility.

 Staphylococci: novobiocin test to distinguish coagulase negative
 staphylococci Staph epidermidis stays away from the novobiocin
 disc like an epidemic.
 · Therefore, epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin.
 Staph saprophyticus, much friendlier, comes up to the disc and says, "'sap?'"
 [short for "whassup?", ie "what's up"].
 · Therefore, saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant.

 Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation
 "Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke":
 Sore throat: 1 week ago
 Face bloat: facial edema
 Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine
 · Alternatively, short version: "Throat, bloat and coke".

 Streptococci: classification by hemolytic ability Gamma:
 Garbage (no hemolytic activity).
 Alpha: Almost (almost lyse, but incomplete).
 Beta: Best (complete lysis).

 Streptococci: Quellung reaction: positive sign, Strep type confirmed
 Quell: Capsules swell [+ve test].
 Lung: S. pnuemonia [type confirmed].
 · You get pneumonia in your lung.

E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors 
 Neonatal meningitis
 Gram negative sepsis
 · Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.

 Streptococcus pyrogenes: antibody SPAM:
 Streptococcus Pyogenes: Antibody to Mprotein.

 Staphylococcus aureus: diseases caused SOFT PAINS:
 Skin infections
 Food poisoning
 Toxic shock syndrome
 Acute endocarditis
 Infective arthritis
 Necrotizing fasciitis

 Meningitis: most common organisms NHS:
 Neisseria meningitidis
 Hemophilus Influenzae
 Streptococcus pneumonia
 ·The cause of the most Severe meningitis is Streptococcus.
 · Note: NHS is an acronym for National Health Service in several countries.

Syphilis vs. H. ducreyi (chancroid): which ulcer is painful
 "In du-crey-i, you do cry (because it is painful)":
 In H. ducreyi, the ulcer is painful, in syphilis the ulcer is painless.

 Diphtheria toxin properties ABCDEF:
 A/B-type toxin. Made by
 Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which binds to
 EF-2 (elongation factor 2).

 RNA viruses: negative stranded "Always Bring
 Polymerase Or Fail Replication":

Note: Negative RNA viruses need there own polymerase.



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