Mega Chart: Childhood Development Theories

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Erikson
Freud
Piaget


Human personality determined by childhood & adult experiences.
Children influenced by sexual drive.
Capable of sexual activities from birth (which were non-sexual)
Intelligence is an extension of biologic adaptation & has a logical structure.
How children & adolescents acquire knowledge
Stage 1
TRUST vs. MISTRUST
ORAL STAGE
SENSORYMOTOR STAGE
·   Birth to 1y
·   Trust when parent is attentive
·   Mistrust when not
·   Birth to 18m
·   Mouth: main site of gratification (chewing, biting, sucking)
·   Birth to 2y
·   Learn through sensory observation
·   Gain control of motor fx
·   Object permanence is acquired (cry when mother goes to another room)
Stage 2
AUTONOMY vs. SHAME & DOUBT
ANAL STAGE
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
·   1 to 3y
·   Child have a sense of mastery/control
·   Cooperative or  stubborn
·   Autonomy: makes own decisions
·   S&D: didn’t
·   1 to 3y
·   Anus & surrounding areas
·   Involved in bowel fx & bladder control
·   If harsh toilet training, may become “anally fixated”
·   Child fight for control, master their environment à OCPD
·   2 to 7y
·   Symbols, language
·   Egocentric
·   Animistic thinking (objects have life)
·   Sense of imminent
·   Death: reversible
·   Lack of “law of conservation” (2 cups, one tall, one short, each with same amount of water, which one’s bigger? The tall one)
Stage 3
INITIATIVE vs. GUILT
PHALLIC STAGE
CONCRETE OPERATIONS STAGE
·   3 to 5y
·   Initiates motor & intellectual activity
·   3 to 5y
·   Genital area main site of gratification
·   Inless than3 with opposite-sex parent “Oedipal complex”
·   Increased genital masturbation
·   Penis envy from girls
·   Fear of castration from boys
·   7 to 11y
·   Egocentricity replaced by operational thought
·   Try to change what they learn in stage 2
·   Death: irreversible
·   Acquire “law of conservation”
Stage 4
INDUSTRY vs. INFERIORITY
LATENCY STAGE
FORMAL OPERATION STAGE
·   6 to 11y
·   Learn. Work.  Acquire adult skills
·   Industry: ability to master & complete task, sense of  accomplishment
·   Inferiority: no goals completed. Prone to violence (e.g. children with learning disabilities)
·   5 to 11-13y
·   Formation of superego: values, ethics, resolution of Oedipal complex
·   Sexual interests: quiescent
·   Sublimation of sexual energy into energetic learning & play activities
·   11 to end adolescence
·   Abstract thinking
·   Define concepts
·   Deductive reasoning
·   Hypothetical thinking
Stage 5
IDENTITY vs. ROLE DIFFUSION
GENITAL STAGE

·   11y to adolescence
·   Group identity (appearance)
·   Morality, ethics
·   Sexual experience
·   “Normative”  identity crisis (at the end  of stage)
·   11-13y to adulthood
·   Capacity of true intimacy
Stage 6
INTIMACY vs. ISOLATION


·   21 to 40y
·   Early adulthood
·   Sexual relations
·   Friendship/relationship w/o fear of losing self
Stage 7
GENERATIVITY vs. STAGNATION


·   40 to 65y
·   If person achieves goals?
Stage 8
INTEGRATY vs. DISPAIR


·   >65y
·   Sense of satisfaction w/one self
·  Acceptance



Mega Chart: Childhood Development Theories 

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notes.nursium.com: Mega Chart: Childhood Development Theories
Mega Chart: Childhood Development Theories
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