HYPOGLYCEMIA (excessive insulin)
Tremors, cold/clammy skin, mental confusion, rapid/shallow respirations, unusual fatigue,
hunger, drowsiness, anxiety, headache, muscular incoordination, paresthesia of tongue/
mouth/lips, hallucination, increased pulse and B/P, tachycardia, seizures, coma.
HYPERGLYCEMIA (insufficient insulin)
Hot/fl ushed/dry skin, fruity breath odor, excessive urination (polyuria), excessive thirst
(polydipsia), acute fatigue, air hunger, deep/labored respirations, mental changes, restlessness,
nausea, polyphagia (excessive appetite).
HYPOKALEMIA (potassium level less than 3.5 mEq/L)
Weakness/paresthesia of extremities, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypoactive
bowel sounds, absent bowel sounds (paralytic ileus), abdominal distention, weak/irregular
pulse, postural hypotension, diffi culty breathing, disorientation, irritability.
HYPERKALEMIA (potassium level greater than 5.0 mEq/L)
Diarrhea, muscle weakness, heaviness of legs, paresthesia of tongue/hands/feet, slow/
irregular pulse, decreased B/P, abdominal cramps, oliguria/anuria, respiratory diffi culty,
cardiac abnormalities.
HYPONATREMIA (sodium level less than 130 mEq/L)
Abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cold/clammy skin, poor skin turgor,
tremors, muscle weakness, leg cramps, increased pulse rate, irritability, apprehension,
hypotension, headache.
HYPERNATREMIA (sodium level greater than 150 mEq/L)
Hot/fl ushed/dry skin, dry mucous membranes, fever, extreme thirst, dry/rough/red tongue,
edema, restlessness, postural hypotension, oliguria.
HYPOCALCEMIA (calcium level less than 8.4 mg/dl)
Circumoral/peripheral numbness and tingling, muscle twitching, Chvostek├ó€™s sign (facial
muscle spasm; test by tapping of facial nerve anterior to ear lobe, just below zygomatic arch),
muscle cramping, Trousseau├ó€™s sign (carpopedal spasm), seizures, arrhythmias.
HYPERCALCEMIA (calcium level greater than 10.2 mg/dl)
Muscle hypotonicity, incoordination, anorexia, constipation, confusion, impaired memory,
slurred speech, lethargy, acute psychotic behavior, deep bone pain, flank pain.



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