Respiratory Disorders In Children: Nasopharyngitis

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Respiratory Disorders In Children

Definition:

·         Respiratory disease is the term for diseases of the respiratory system.
·         These include diseases of the lung, pleural cavity, bronchial tubes, trachea, upper respiratory tract and of the nerves and muscles of breathing.
·         Respiratory disease range from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold to life-threatening such as bacterial pneumonia or pulmonary embolism.

Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI):

·         The upper respiratory tract includes the sinuses, nasal passages, pharynx and larynx. 
·         These structures direct the air way breathe from the outside of the trachea and eventually to the lungs for respiration to take place.

Nasopharyngitis:



  Definition:
·         Nasopharyngitis is a contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily.
·         It is the most common infectious disease in humans. More detailed information about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of nasopharyngitis is available below.
Symptoms-
-          sore throat
-          -runny nose
-          nasal congestion
-           sneezing
-sometimes accompanied by 'pink eye'


Causes:
-picarnoviruses.
-rhinoviruses
-coronaviruses
-human parainfluenza viruses.

Pathophysiology:
-          The rhinovirus entry leads to edema and vasodilation of the submucosa of the respiratory tract.
-          This will in turn cause the mononuclear cell infiltration to grow into polynuclear cell infiltration which will cause the separation and sloughing of the epithelial cells.
-          Mucous production initially will be thin but sooner it will become thick and purulent.

Treatment:
-          there are no antiviral drugs approved to treat or cure the infection; all medications used are palliative and treat symptoms also.
-          alternative treatments such as vitamin C, Echinacea, and zinc have been proposed but none of them have been broken down to decrease the duration of the illness.
-          conservative treatment: plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, gargling with warm salt water, using cough drops, throat sprays, or over the counter pain or cold medicines. Saline nasal drops may help alleviate Congestion.
 Complications:
-          superinfections such as acute bronchitis, bronchitis, croup, pneumonia, sinusitis, Otitis media, or strep throat.
-          people with chronic lung diseases such as asthma and COPD are especially vulnerable.

-          colds may cause acute exacerbations of asthma, emphysema or chronic bronchitis.

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notes.nursium.com: Respiratory Disorders In Children: Nasopharyngitis
Respiratory Disorders In Children: Nasopharyngitis
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