PATHOGNOMONIC SIGNS PART 2

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PATHOGNOMONIC SIGNS PART 2

DISEASE
PATHOGNOMONIC SIGN
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection
owl’s eye appearance of cells (huge nucleus in cells hence the name)
Hypocalcemia
A.Chvostek sign (tapping of facial nerve elicits abnormal muscle contraction on other side of face)
B.Trousseau sign (occlusion of brachial artery induces wrist spasm)
Tetanus
risus sardonicus (sustained spasm of facial muscles)
Bulimia nervosa
chipmunk facies (parotid gland swelling)
Leprosy
leonine facies (thickened folded facial skin)
Measles
Koplik’s spots (clustered white lesions on buccal mucosa)
Diphtheria
pseudomembranes in oral cavity
Pancreatitis
Cullen’s sign (ecchymosis around umbilicus)
Grey-Turner’s Sign (flank ecchymosis)
Cholera
rice water stool (murky watery stool with sediments)
washer woman’s hands (wrinkled hands from dehydration)
Typhoid Fever
rose spots
Meningitis
Kernig’s sign (bend hip and knee then flex the knee produces pain)
Brudzinski’s sign (pressure on the cheek flexes the forearm)
Cholecystitis
Murphy’s sign (hesitation on inspiration if gall bladder is palpated)
Angina Pectoris and MI
Levine’s sign (clutching of fist on chest)
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
machine-like murmur
Parkinson’s Disease
pill-rolling tremor
Pericarditis
pericardial friction rub
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma & Mononucleosis
Reed-Sternberg Cells (large multi-nucleated cells)
Rheumatic Fever
Aschoff bodies (areas of inflammation in the heart)
Rabies
hydrophobia
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Auer rods (rod-like inclusions in bone marrow cells)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
barrel-chested
Scarlet Fever & Kawasaki Disease
strawberry tongue
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
butterfly rash on the face
Appendicitis
McBurney’s point (rebound tenderness)
Rovsing sign (palpation of LLQ elicits pain in RLQ)
Psoas sign (pain from flexing the thigh to the hip)
Thrombophlebitis
Homan’s sign (bend knee, dorsiflex ankle, pain at popliteal area)
Pyloric Stenosis
olive-shaped mass
Hyperthyroidism
exophthalmos (protrusion of eyeballs)
Addison’s Disease
bronze-colored skin
Cushing’s Syndrome
buffalo hump at nape
moon face
Asthma
wheezing
Choking
holding of throat
Down’s Syndrome
single transverse palmar crease
Tetralogy of Fallot
ventricular septal defect
pulmonary stenosis
overriding aorta
right ventricular hypertrophy
Glaucoma
tunnel vision
Retinal Detachment
flashes of light
shadow with curtain across vision
Myasthenia Gravis
ptosis (drooping of eyelids), Descending paralysis
Dengue Fever
Herman’s sign (petechial rash)
Amoebiasis
bloody mucoid stool
Pertussis
“whoop” sound from inspiration of air after cough
Pneumonia
rusty sputum
Peritonitis
rigid, board-like abdomen
Basilar Skull Fracture
raccoon eyes (periorbital ecchymosis)
Battle’s sign (mastoid ecchymosis)
Buerger’s Disease
intermittent claudication (pain at buttocks or legs from poor circulation resulting in impaired walking)
Chickenpox
vesiculopapular rash
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
acetone breath
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
proteinuria
hypertension
edema
Diabetes Mellitus
polydipsia
polyphagia
polyuria
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
heartburn
Hirschsprung’s Disease (Toxic Megacolon)
ribbon-like stool
Volvulus and Intussusception
currant jelly stool
Increase Intracranial Pressure
Cushing’s Triad (increased BP, decrease RR & HR)
Leptospirosis
orange eyes
Multiple Sclerosis
descending paralysis
Guillaine-Barre Syndrome
ascending paralysis
Oral Thrush/Candidiasis
white spots on tongue
Osteoporosis
kyphosis
Acute Renal Failure
azotemia (nitrogen compounds in urine)
uremic frost (urea deposits in skin)
uremic fetor (ammoniacal breath)
STD
MALE
FEMALE
Herpes Simples Type II
painful vesicles on genitalia
Genital Warts
warts 1-2mm in diameter
Syphilis
painless chancres
Chancroid
painful chancres
Gonorrhea
green, creamy discharge and dysuria
Chlamydia
milky discharge and dysuria
Trichomoniasis
N/A
yellow, itchy, frothy, foul-smelling vaginal discharges
Candidiasis
N/A
white cheesy odorless vaginal discharges
Name

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notes.nursium.com: PATHOGNOMONIC SIGNS PART 2
PATHOGNOMONIC SIGNS PART 2
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