Embalming

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Embalming


It is a temporary preservation of a dead human being, accomplished by a surgical technique of injecting chemical solutions in to the deceased's vascular system, thus producing a natural life-like appearance for a longer period.This process dramatically retard's tissue decomposition.
Modern embalming is done to delay decomposition so that funeral services may take place or for the purpose of shipping the remains to a distant place for disposition. Involves removing and replacing body's blood with a solution that preserves the body and delays decomposition
Purpose


  • Disinfection  
  • Preservation
  • Restoration


Procedure
·Pre embalming procedure
·Arterial embalming
· Cavity embalming
· Hypodermic embalming
·  Surface embalming
·  Single-point injection.
·  multiple-point injection
Body is placed in supine anatomical position with the head elevated by a head block. Care is taken to make the expression look as relaxed and natural as possible
Pre embalming procedure
·        Once the body is released for embalming by the doctor or medical examiner's office, the embalmer is called to remove the body.
·        Paperwork is filled out and the body is transported to the funeral home for embalming, if requested or required (not all states, areas require embalming)
·        An embalming report is filled out.
·        Personal items are noted, such as jewellery; details about any marks, bruises, etc. On the body are noted;
·        Embalming process and any chemicals used are documented.
·        All clothing, bandages, IV's, etc. Are removed and a strong disinfectant spray is used to clean the eyes, mouth, skin, and other orifices.
·        If rigor mortis (the stiffening of muscles after death) has set in, it is relieved by moving the limbs and head about and massaging the muscles.
·        If the decedent is a man, he is normally shaved at this point.
    Arterial embalming 
Arterial embalming involves the injection of embalming chemicals into the blood vessels, usually via the right common carotid artery
Blood and interstitial fluids are' displaced by this injection and are expelled from the right  jugular vein, The embalming solution is injected with a centrifugal pump and the embalmer massages thebody to break up circulatory clots as to ensure the proper distribution of the embalming fluid. This process of raising vessels with injection and drainage from a solitary location is known as a single-point injection.
In cases of poor circulation of the arterial solution additional injection points (commonly the axillary, brachial or femoral arteries, with the ulnar; radial and tibial vessels if necessary) are used. The corresponding veins are commonly also raised and utilized for the purpose of drainage. Cases where more than one vessel is raised are referred to as multiple-point injection
Cavity embalming
Cavity embalming refers to the replacement of internal fluids inside body cavities with embalming chemicals via the use of an aspirator and trocar. Small incision just above the navel Pushes the trocar in the chest and stomach cavities to puncture the hollow organs and aspirate their contents. Fills the cavities with concentrated chemicals that contain formaldehyde.
Hypodermic embalming
Injection of embalming chemicals into tissue with a hypodermic needle and syringe, which is generally used in areas where arterial fluid has not been successfully distributed during the main arterial injection.
Surface embalming:
·        Local body areas are preserved by applying suitable chemicals to surface of the body.
·        May be arterial or cavity fluid,
·        Packs of cotton or gauze are soaked, applied to external skin.
·        Eg: burned tissues, bed sores, surface lesions

Single-point injection:
·        One location is used for both injection & drainage
·        The most common location is the right common carotid artery & the accompanying jugular vein
·        the femoral artery & vein is the 2nd most popular
·        The least common location is the axillary/brachial artery & vein
Multiple-point injection:
·   Injection from 2 or more arteries
·   Drainage may be from one or more locations
·   A multipoint injection solves the problem of poor distribution 
 Post embalming
·        The body and hair are washed once more to remove any blood or chemicals and then thoroughly dried.
·        Makeup gets applied to the face, neck, and hands.
·        The fingernails are trimmed.
·        The hair is styled, either by the embalmer or by a professional hairdresser or barber.
·        The remains are dressed in the outfit chosen by the family.
·        The body is placed into the casket and posed in the proper position

Embalming fluids

 Embalming solution can be made from 40% formaldehyde (formol) and carbolic acid. The more commonly used solution is 10% formaldehyde plus alcohol and glycerine: for each litter of formaldehyde, use 0.5 alcohol.If formaldehyde is not available, use 20% zinc chloride in alcohol or glycerine.

Conclusion

·        Embalming requires skills acquired through special training.
·        Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
·        The intention is to keep them suitable for public display at a funeral, for religious reasons, or for medical and scientific purposes such as their use as anatomical specimens.

Reference http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/data/Books

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Embalming
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