1.       Breathing Patterns
Tachypnea/ polypnea - quick, shallow breaths greater than 20 breaths/ min.
Bradypnea - abnormally slow breathing less than 12 breaths/ min
Apnea - Cessation of breathing.

Ease or effort

Orthopnea - Ability to breathe only in upright sitting or standing positions.
Dyspnea - Difficult and labored breathing during which the individual has a persistent, unsatisfied need for air and feels distressed.
Hyperventilation - Over expansion of lungs characterized by rapid and deep breaths
Hypoventilation - Under expansion of the lungs, characterized by shallow respiration

Cheyne – stokes breathing – respiratory rate and depth are irregular, characterized by alterating periods of apnea
and hyperventilation.
Kussmaul’s respiration -Respirations are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate.
Biot's respiration - Respirations are abnormally shallow for two to three breaths followed by irregular period of apnea
2.       Breath sounds
Audible without Amplification
Stridor : A shrill ,harsh sound heard during inspiration with laryngeal obstructions.
Stertor : Snoring or sonorous respiration ,usually due to partial obstruction of the airway.
Wheeze : Continuous high pitched musical squek or whistling sound occurring on expiration and sometimes on inspiration when air moves through a narrowed or partially obstructed airway..
Bubbling : Gurgling sounds heard as air passes through moist secretions in the respiratory tract

Secretions and coughing

Hemoptysis - The presence of blood in the sputum

Productive cough - A cough accompanied by expectorated secretions

Non productive cough - A dry harsh cough without secretions

Chest movements

Intercostal retraction - in drawing between the ribs
Substernalretracton - in drawing beneath the breastbone

Suprasternal retraction - in drawing above the clavicles



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