Burns: Aesthetic, cosmetic Surgeries

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Asthetic surgeries
What is cosmetic surgery?
  • operations and other procedures that revise or change the appearance, colour, texture, structure or position of bodily features, which most would consider otherwise to be within the broad range of normal for that person.-(Healthcare Commission 2004: 12)
Basic principles
  • Skin lines
  • Elliptical incision
  • Suturing technique  
  • Other variables
Asthetic surgeries
  • Facial rejuvenating procedures: Rhytidectomy (face lift), Blepharoplasty, Rhinoplasty
  • 2. Body contouring surgery (lipectomy): Liposuction, Adbomino plasty, Pannicul ectomy
  • Facial rejuvenating procedures
1. Facial resurfacing
  • Chemical Skin peel: Uses a solution of phenol (deep peel), trichloroacetic acid (medium depth peel) and alphahydroxy acids (light peel) to remove damaged outer layers of skin
  • Indications: Wrinkles, blemishes, uneven pigmentation or sun damage
  • Post procedure: Skin moisturizers, Hydrocortisone (to reduce edema and erythema)
  • Complication: hyper pigmentation

2. Laser resurfacing
  • Used to remove fine wrinkles in face, acne
  • Under sedation or topical anesthetics (eutectic mixture of local anesthesia(EMLA).
  • Post procedure: Ice packs, Oral corticoids x 48hrs
  • Complication: hyperpigmentation

3.Dermabrasion
  • Sanding the surface layers of skin on cheeks and forehead with an electric rotating brush to smooth out pitting and surface blemishes Eg. Acne scars

4.Microdermabrasion
  • Sandblaster-like device used to spray high pressure stream of aluminum oxide or salt crystals across face and suction used to remove dead outer layer of skin.
  • Stimulates skin cell and collagen production.
  • Microdermabrasion :Affects only outer layer of skin
  • Used to reduce fine lines, age spots, acne scars  
  • Effective for all skin types
  • Multiple treatments required for visible results
  • 5 to 12 treatments 2 to 3 weeks apart
  • Side Effects: Temporary throbbing, tingling, swelling, redness, sensitivity to sun, whiteheads With Phenol peel: permanent lightening of skin and loss of ability to tan
  • Risks: Infection, scarring, flare-up of skin allergies, fever blisters, cold sores New wrinkles may form as skin ages

5.Collagen Injections
  • Plump creased, furrowed or sunken facial skin
  • Add fullness to lips and back of hands
  • Risk and side effets: stinginf , throbbing, burning sensation, redness, swelling,wxcess fullness, allergic reactions, rash, hives,lu like symptoms, infection, connective tissue or autoimmune diseases.

6.Botulinum injections
  • Used to treat lines between the eyebrows
  • Inj. Botox (Botulinum toxin type A)
  • Botax is a protein produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum
  • Botox is injected through the skin into the muscle and keeps the muscle from tightening; when the muscle can't tighten, the wrinkle is less prominent
  • Small dose injected into the affected muscle and block the release of chemical acetyl -choline
  • Effective for about 4 months, after which wrinkles may reappear
  • Side effects: Droopy eyelids, flu-like symptoms, headache, upset stomach, risk of botulism (a   potentially fatal disease which often results in difficulty moving the arms and legs and difficulty breathing - risk is low if Botox is used properly)

7.Dermal fillers
  • Autologous fat, collagen,hyaluronic acid, hylaform, restylane used to fill in small wrinkes or depressed blemishes in the skin.

8.Rhytidectomy ( face lift)
  • Restore a more youthful appearance
  • Removing wrinkled skin from the forehead and around the eyes and mouth.

9. Facial Implants
  • Used to improve facial contours. Implants made from different materials including silicone Implant inserted into small incision; often performed in conjunction with other facial surgery, i.e.  face lift
  • Incision taped to reduce swelling and discomfort

10.Blepharoplasty
  • Surgical removal of excess skin and periorbital fat from the upper or lower eyelid Post surgery: Iced normal saline compress---edema

11.Rhinoplasty
  • Surgical correction of nasal deformities
  • Reduce or increase nose size, change shape of tip or bridge, nostril size, angle between nose and lip, or correct breathing problems Post surgery:
  • Nasal packs
  • Watch for excessive swallowing
  • Oral analgesics
  • Avoid asprin before I week and after 2 weeks

12.Endoscopic forehead and brow lift procedure:
  • Brow and forehead lifts to raise eyebrows and reduce ridges and furrows on the forehead.

13. Chin and cheek enhancement (genioplasty)
  • Augmentation doen by using implants
  • Also done by sliding bony chin along with adding or subtracting bone from the chin region to either increase or decrease facial height
  • The bony parts are secured with titanium plates or screws
  • Reduction genio plasty done if too long chin or projection is too forward
  • Removal of some bone or reduce the chin height or sliding back the chin button
  • The bony parts are secured with titanium plates or screws

14. Cleft lip nose deformity
  • Nose deformity: Closure or implants are used
Cleft lip
  • Cleft lip repair: Ralph Millard rotation advancement technique is used
Cleft palate
  • Von lenganback procedure
  • Veau wardill kilner's three flap technique
  • Millard's island flap trans position for lengthening the soft palate
  • Doub e reverse Z plasty: consists of two "Z" plasties, one on the oral mucosa of the soft palate And other in the reverse orientation of the nasal mucosa of the soft palate


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notes.nursium.com: Burns: Aesthetic, cosmetic Surgeries
Burns: Aesthetic, cosmetic Surgeries
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