Definition and concepts of disaster nursing
· It is the systematic and flexible utilization of knowledge and skills specific to disaster related nursing, and the promotion of wide range of activities to minimize the health hazards and life-threatening damage caused by disasters in collaboration with other fields.
· Disaster Nursing can be defined as the adaptation of professional nursing skills in recognizing and meeting the physical and emotional nees resulting from a disaster.
· Disaster Nursing is nursing practiced in a situation where professional supplies, equipment, physical facilities and utilities are limited or not available.
· Disaster nursing involves response to & preparedness for natural and man-made that affects an entire community (communities) that massive number of casualties and extensive property damage.
· Disaster nursing can be defined as 'The adaptation of professional nursing knowledge, skills and attitude in recognizing and meeting the nursing, health and emotional needs of disaster victims." WHO
Goals of disaster nursing: The overall goal of disaster nursing is to achieve the best possible level of health for the people and the community involved in the disaster. Other goals of disaster nursing are •
· To meet the immediate basic survival needs of populations affected by disasters (water, food, shelter, and security).
· To identify the potential for a second disaster.
· To appraise both risks an resources in the environment.
· To correct inequalities in access to health care or appropriate resources,
· To empower survivors to participate in and advocate for their own health and well-being.
· To respect cultural, lingual, and religious diversity in individuals and families and to apply this principle in all health promotion activities.
· To promote the highest achievable quality of life for survivors.
Principles of disaster management
The aim of the disaster control is to prevent or minimise death, disablement, suffering and loss.
Eight basic principles should be followed to achieve this goal.
Principles of disaster management: -Sanford(1984)
1. Prevention of occurrence
2. Minimizing casualty number
3. Preventing further casualties
4. Rescuing the injured
5. Providing first aid
6. Evacuating the injured
7. Providing definitive care
8. Facilitating reconstruction recovery
Principles Of Disaster Nursing
1. Rapid assessment of the situation and of nursing care needs.
2. Triage and initiation of life-saving measures first.
3. The selected use of essential nursing interventions and the elimination of nonessential nursing activities.
4. Adaptation of necessary nursing skills to disaster and other emergencies. The nurse must use imagination and resourcefulness in dealing with a lack of supplies, equipment, and personnel.
5. Evaluation of the environment and the mitigation or removal of any health hazards.
6. Prevention of further injury or illness.
7. Leadership in coordinating patient triage, care, and transport during times of crisis.
8. The teaching, supervision, and utilization of auxiliary medical personnel and volunteers.
9. Provision of understanding, compassion, and emotional support to all victims and their families.