Machinery, Equipments & Linen

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MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT & LINEN

INTRODUCTION

Machinery and equipment's are essential and basic tools for hospital services, used on an everyday basis for patient care. Handling materials and equipment's are very important responsibility of the nurse working in the hospital.

A nurse working in type of health •care facility must have awareness about the basic care and handling of equipment, machinery and housekeeping, so that a nursing care can be provided swiftly and an optimum patient satisfaction can be achieved. With increased modernization and upgradation of technology, highly sophisticated equipment is in use in modern day nursing care. Hence the nurses should be able to use and care the equipment properly

EQUIPMENT:

The term equipment is used for more permanent type of article and may be classified as fixed and movables.
Fixed equipment is not a structure of the building, but it is attached to the walls or floors.
Movable equipment includes furniture, instruments
Health Technology
The application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quaJity of life.
Medical Devices
An article, instrument, apparatus or machine that is used in the  diagnosis or treatment of illness or disease or for detecting, measuring, restoring, correcting or modifying the structure or function of the body for some health purpose.
Medical equipment
Medical devices requiring calibration, maintenance, repair user training and decommissioning — activities usually managed by clinical engineers. Medical equipment is      used for the specific purposes of diagnosis and treatment of disease or rehabilitation following disease or injury.

MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT

Equipment maintenance is a set of activities done to keep equipment in their optimum working condition and consists of routine inspection and maintenance practices. An effective medical equipment maintenance programme consists of adequate planning, management and implementation.
Purposes of Equipment Maintenance
Maximum availability and reliability of equipment
2. Equipment Maintenance
The basic objective of the maintenance is to have increased availability of equipment, with increased safety. Maintenance management involves managing the functions of maintenance.
Maintaining equipment has been a challenging task as the hospital equipment are highly sophisticated and expensive, therefore effective maintenance management is very important in terms of cost optimization
Medical equipment maintenance can be divided into two categories:
Inspection and Preventive Maintenance (IPM)
Corrective Maintenance (CM).
IPM includes all scheduled activities that ensure equipment functionality and prevents breakdowns and failures.
PM refers to scheduled activities performed to extend the life of a device and prevent failure
(i.e. by calibration, part replacement, lubrication, cleaning etc.)
Inventory
Inventory management is the assessment of supply and storage of items in order to ensure adequate supply and prevention of oversupply. It is a system designed for internal control and accounting purpose as this is direct cost to the hospital. There should be proper procedures for the inventory flow and management to optimize the cost and also to supplies on time.
For the pose of procurement or indent, equipment is categorized into instruments or low — value instruments. Another classification is sophisticated. equipment electronics and non - electronic equipment. Indent for routine or low value equipment can be done weekly, monthly or annually.
Equipment is procured by submitting a statement of case (SOC) or an indent form depending on the hospital policy. The SOC or indent form should be approved the competent authority. An• annual acquisition plan can be prepared which indicates be outlay for the procurement of specific kind of equipment.
  •  Maximum return on investment done on the equipment
  •  Prevention of wastage of consumables and spares
  •  Extended useful life of equipment
  •  Readiness of the equipment for emergency use whenever required.

Equipment Maintenance Process
Hospital diagnostic equipment includes stethoscope, sphygmanometer, thermometers, protoscope, bronchoscope, laryngoscope, surgical equipment and scanning devices such as X-ray machines, computed axial tomography or CAT scanners and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
All equipment required in the hospital are procured, stocked and annual inventory maintained.
             Equipment Maintenance Process        
       
M

1.                      Indent/ Procurement of. the equipment
2.                      Equipment Maintenance
3.                      Inventory        
1.   Indent/ Procurement of the equipment
Some of the identified techniques are:
1.                      First in, first. out (FIFO)
2.                      Inspection of stock levels
3.                      Security of stock

1. First in, first out (FIFO)

It is mostly employed for perishable or limited self— life items like drugs. For example in a
pharmacy, if new stock coming in would get taken immediately then older stock would expire, causing great loss. Hence old stock should be arranged in front or stock must be arranged by date received.
2. Inspection of stock levels
Minimum stock level should be maintained which will fill up the gap while the supplies are reordered. Proper consideration should be given to emergencies besides the time that vendors take to replenish the stock. This will help in arriving at just in time (JIT) ordering, where stock is held for a minimum amount of time.

3. Security of stock


Security is necessary to control cost. High value items are to be properly secured and kept and proper periodic inventory is to be done. Security guards, cameras, bar codes and security devices can be used.

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