Occupational Therapy

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OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

Definition
Occupational therapy is the application of goal oriented, purposeful activity in the assessment and treatment of individuals with psychological, physical or developmental disabilities. (Susan b fine, 1972 )
Goal
Main goal is to enable patient to achieve healthy balance of occupation through the development of skills that will allow to function at a level satisfactory to himself and others.
Settings
Psychiatric hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, special schools, community mental health centers, day care centers, halfway homes, and de-addiction centers
Points to be kept in mind
·         Consider patients interest
·         The activity should utilize the patient's strengths and abilities
·         Select short duration activities
·         Selected activity should provide some new experience for the patient
Process of intervention
·         Initial evaluation of the patient; what patient can do and cannot do
·         Development of immediate and long term goals by patient and therapist
·         Development of therapy plan with planned intervention
·         Implement the plan and monitor the progress
·         Call for review meeting
·         When immediate goals are achieved, set further goals
Types of activities:
·         Diversional activities like organized games
·         Therapeutic activities; for example carpentry
Suggested Occupational Activities
·         Anxiety disorder: simple concrete tasks with no more than 3 or 4 steps that can be learnt quickly
Eg: kitchen tasks, washing, sweeping, mopping
·         Depressive disorder: simple concrete tasks which are achievable; it is important for the patient to achieve the success. Provide positive reinforcement after each achievement.
Eg: crafts, weeding gardens a Manic disorder: non-competitive activities that allow the use of energy and expression of feelings. Activities should be limited and changed frequently Eg: sweeping
·         Schizophrenia (paranoid): non-competitive, solitary meaningful tasks that require some degree of concentration so that less time is available to focus on delusions
Eg: puzzles
·         Schizophrenia (catatonic): simple concrete tasks in which patient is actively involved.
Patient needs continuous supervision
Eg. Molding clay
·         Antisocial personality: activities that enhance self-esteem and are expressive and creative, but not too complicated. Patient needs supervision to make sure each task is complicated
Eg: leather work, painting
·         Dementia: group activities to increase feeling of belonging and self worth. Activities needs to be structured, requiring little time for completion and not much concentration. Explain and demonstrate each task, then have patient repeat the demonstration
Eg: cover making, packing goods
·         Substance abuse: group activities in which patient uses his talents
Eg: involving patient in planning social activities, encouraging interaction with others
·         Childhood and adolescent disorders:
Children: playing, story telling, painting, poetry, music
Adolescents: creative activities such as leather work, drawing, painting
Advantages
·         Helps to develop social skills and provide an outlet for self expression
·         Strengthens ego defenses
·         Develops a more realistic view of the self in relation to others
Nurses role
·         Observer
·         Teacher
·         Parent
·         Supporter
·         Guide and Friend
·         Warden


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notes.nursium.com: Occupational Therapy
Occupational Therapy
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