Eye: Ocular emergencies

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Ocular emergencies and their prevention
Aetiology:-
Blunt injury
  • Fist
  • Other blunt objects
 Penetrating injury
  • Fragments such as glass, metal, wood knife, stick or other large objects
 Chemical injury  
  • Alkaline
  • Acid  
Foreign bodies
  • Glass, metal, wood, plastic
Trauma
  • Blunt
  • Penetrating/ perforating
Burns
  • Chemical
  • Thermal
Thermal injury
  • Directburn from curling iron or other hot surface
  • Indirect burn from UV light (welding torch, sun lamp)
Mechanical injury
c/f - Swelling and discoloration of the tissue
  • Bleeding into the tissue and structures of the eye
  • Pain

Treatment
  • Conservative management
  • Cold compress
  • Suturing
  • Antibiotic/ steroidal eye drops
Penetrating / Perforating injury
  • Eye is pierced-by sharp object
  • Surgical intervention eg. Vitrectomy, keratoplasty
  • Rest
  • Eye bandage
  • Suturing
  • Antibiotic/ steroidal eye drops

Foreign body in the eye
  • May superficial, or penetrated to the eye
  • Extra ocular foreign bodies: dust, dirt, contact lenses, sand, cosmetics
Treatment:
  • Do not touch or rub
  • •Wash eye with plenty of water/ saline
  • Conjunctival FB: remove by sterile swab stick
Intraocular foreign bodies: particle of iron, stone, wood pieces
Treatment :
  • Correct localization of FB
  • Surgical removal of FB in OT
  • Antibiotics
  • Handheld electromagentic device for magnetic FB
 
Chemical burns of the eye
  • True opthalmic emergency, Acid/ Alkali Burns
 Treatment;
  • Irrigation of the eye with saline/ sterile water continuously
  • Treatment based on the injury. caused  
  • Necrotic conjunctival/ corneal debridement
  • Penetrating keratoplasty, cataract extraction
  • Promote epithelial healing
  • Pain medications
  • Antibiotics
 
Radiation injury to the eye
  • Infra-red, gamma, ultra-violet, roentgen rays   
  • c/f- after a period of 6-8 hrs, first symptom is foreign body   
Treatment:
  • Preventive actions, dark glasses
  • Cold compress
  • Steroid, antibiotic drops, analgesics

 

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notes.nursium.com: Eye: Ocular emergencies
Eye: Ocular emergencies
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http://notes.nursium.com/2017/06/eye-ocular-emergencies-and-their.html
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