Collection of Urine Specimen
ü To assess the ability of kidneys to concentrate & dilute urine,
ü Determine glucose metabolism disorders & determine specific constituents.
ü Contaminated & improperly collected specimen will give false reading, adversely affect diagnosis & treatment.
ü Specimens allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time will give false reading due to decomposition & bacterial growth.
ü Accuracy & reliability depends on the collection & transportation methods.
ü Specimens serve as a media of transmission of microbes to the person who handles it carelessly.
Types of urine specimen:
1) Clean voided urine specimen/Single urine specimen/random specimen
· It is used for routine examinations
· Usually morning specimens are collected.
· After cleaning the genital area the patient passes urine in a clean urinal or kidney tray or directly into the specimen bottle.
· 100-120 ml is sufficient.
· Clean the outside of container and label it
2) Timed Specimen/ 24 Hour Urine Collection
· Required for accurate measurement of the kidneys excretion of substances
o Ex: urine protein, Creatinine, uric acid and selected hormones
· Preservative is added to prevent breakdown of certain urinary constituents
· Started early in the morning after the first void
· All the subsequent voiding are collected including the last voiding at the end of 24 hrs
· Collection begins at 6 AM. Ask the client to void at 6 AM & discard this urine.
· All the subsequent voiding are collected including the last voiding at 6 AM the next day in a collecting jar already labeled & added with a preservative.
3) Midstream urine collection/ clean catch
· It is collected in sterile specimen containers or disposable clean catch kits.
· Instruct the client to wash and dry genitals and perineal area ( including the urinary meatus)
· Instruct the client start voiding, then place the container into the stream of urine taking care not to touch the perineum & collect 30-40 ml urine. Cap tightly, clean the out part of specimen container and label it
· Sent to the lab immediately
Self- collecting MUS for a woman
· Separate labia minora and cleanse perineum with aseptic swabs starting in front of urethral meatus towards the rectum (3 times)
· Begin to urinate while continuing to hold labia apart
· Allow first urine to flow into toilet
· Hold specimen container under the urine stream and collect the sample
Self- collecting MUS for a man
· Cleanse the end of the penis in a circular motion with aseptic swabs (x3 times)
· If not circumcised, should retract the foreskin to expose the urinary meatus before cleansing
· Allow first urine to flow
· ‘ Pass specimen container into urine stream and collect sample
Specimen from a Catheter
· If client already has an indwelling catheter in place,
· Specimen is obtained using a syringe to draw urine from a self – ceiling pot in the catheter
· Never collect from the drainage bag
Collecting Urine from Children
· Catheterization not recommended because of small meatal opening and trauma to the young child
· Plastic collection devices are more acceptable
Nurse’s responsibilities (please do include the instructions to be given to client for each type of specimen collection)
· On the previous day explain the procedure.
· Provide an appropriate container & demonstrate how to use.
· Instruct not to contaminate the outside of the bottle.
· Ask to wash the external genitalia with soap & water before collection.
· Collect in clean dry containers with wide mouth.
· No antiseptics should be used in the containers.
· Avoid collection during menstruation.
· Preservatives should be added when collecting 24 hour specimens.
· Label each specimen with necessary data including date time & nature of test done
· Perform hand washing & use disposable/paper gloves.