2.Silence:Gives the client the opportunity to collect and organize thoughts, to think
through a point, or to consider introducing a topic of greater concern than the one beino discussed.
3.Active listening: It is an active process of
receiving information. Response on the part of the nurse such as maintaining eye-to-eye contact, nodding, gesturing, and other forms of receptive non-verbal communication convey to the patient that he is being listened to and understood.
4.Acceptance:Conveys an attitude of
reception and regard. Example: “Yes, I understand what you said. Eg. “Eye contact; nodding
5. Restating:Repeating the main idea of
what the client has said. This lets the client know whether or not an expressed statement has been understood and gives him or her the chance to coržtmue, or to clarify if necessary. Eg. Client: “I can’t study. My mind keeps wandering.” Nurse: “You have trouble concentrating.’
6.Reflecting:Questions and feelings are
referred back to the client so that they may be recognized and accepted, and so that the client may recognize that his or her point of view has value- a good technique to use when the client asks the nurse for advice. Eg. Client: “My sister won’t help a bit toward my mother’s care. I have to do it all!” Nurse: “You feel angy when she doesn’t help.’
This technique is not therapeuticor even a single word; works especially well with a client who is moving rapidly from one thought to another.
8. Exploring: Delving further into a subject,
idea, experience, or relationship; especially helpful with clients who tend to remain on a superficial level of communication. However, if the client chooses not to disclose further information, the nurse should refrain from pushing or probing in an area that obviously creates discomfort. Eg. “Please explain that situation in more detail.” “Tell me more about that particular situation.
Striving to explain that which is vague or incomprehensible and searching for mutual understanding; clarifying the meaning of what has been said facilitates and increases understanding for both client and nurse. “I’m not sure that I understand. Would you please explain?”
10.Giving recognition: Acknowledging;
indicating awareness; better than complimentirw which reflects the nurse’s judgment. Eg., “Hello, Mr. J. ,I see you made your bed.”
11.Giving broad openings: Allows the
client to take the initiative in introducing the topic; emphasizes the importance of the client’s role in the interaction. Eg. “What would you like to talk about today?” “Tell me what you are thinking.”
12.Offering self: Making oneself available
on an unconditional basis, increasing client’s feelings of self-worth. Eg. “I’ll stay with you awhile.” “We can eat our lunch together” “I am interested in you.”
13.Making observation: Verbalizing what
is observed or perceived. This encourages the client to recognize specific behaviors and compare perceptions with the nurse. Eg. “You seem tense. I notice you are pacing a lot.” “You seem uncomfortable when you….”
14.Placing the event in time: Clarifies the relationship of events in time so that the nurse and client can view them in perspective. Eg. “What seemed to lead up to . . .?” “Was this before or after ….?” “When did this happen?”