Moral development – Lawrence Kohlberg
Level l. Pre conventional morality/Level
Stage 0 (Birth to 2 Years): Egocentric Judgment
The infant has no awareness of right or wrong.
Stage 1 (2 to 3 Years): Punishment-Obedience Orientation
At this stage, children cannot reason as mature members of society.
Children view the world in a selfish way, with no real understanding of right or wrong.
The child obeys rules and demonstrates acceptable behavior to avoid punishment and to avoid displeasing those who are in power, and because the child fears punishment from a superior force, such as a parent.
A toddler typically is at the first substage of the preconventional stage, involving punishment and obedience orientation, in which the toddler makes judgments based on avoiding punishment or obtaining a reward. hysical punishment and withholding privileges tend to give the toddler a negative view of morals.
Withdrawing love and affection as punishment leads to feelings of guilt in the toddler.
Appropriate discipline includes providing simple explanations why certain behaviors are unacceptable, praising appropriate behavior, and using distractions when the toddler is headed for an unsafe action.
Stage 2 (4 to 7 Years): Instrumental Relativist Orientation
The child conforms to rules to obtain rewards or have favors returned.
The child’s moral standards are those of others, and the child observes them either to avoid punishment or obtain rewards.
A preschooler is in the preconventional stage of moral development.
In this stage, conscience emerges and the emphasis is on external control.
· Corresponds to pre operational level.
· Culturally oriented to the labels of good / bad; right /wroTheories of Growth and Development : Psychosocial development – Erick Erickson with Mnemonicsng.
· Integrated terms in terms of the physical or pleasurable consequences of their actions.
· Determine goodness or badness of an action in terms of its consequences.
· Avoid punishments and obey without questions to those who have the power. Avoid punishments and obey without questions to those who have the power.
· No concept of basic moral order that supports the consequences.
· Later determines that right behavior→ that which satisfies their own needs.
· Elements of loyalty, fairness, give and take and equal sharing are evident but interpreted in a practical, concrete manner without loyalty, gratitude and justice.
Level 2. Conventional morality/level.
Correlates with concrete operations.
Concerned with conformity and loyalty.
Value the maintenance of family, group, or national expectation regardless of consequences.
Good → behavior that meets with approval and pleases or helps others.
Earns approval by being “nice.’
Obeying the rules, doing ones duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining social order are the correct behavior.
Level 3. Post conventional morality/level(autonomous / principled)
Autonomous/ principled level.
Reached cognitive stage of concrete operations. Correct behavior tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and problems that is examined and agreed on by the entire society.
Procedural rules for reaching consensus is important BUT possibility of changing the law is considered.