Definition of Psychiatric nursing:
Psychiatric nursing is defined as an interpersonal process where by a professional nurse practitioner assist individual, family or community to promote mental health, to prevent or cope up with experiences of mental illness or suffering if necessary to find the meaning in these experiences. (Travel Bee Joyce).
It is a specialized area of nursing practice, employing theories of human behaviour as it is a science, and the purposeful use of self as it is an art, in the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential mental health problems (American Nurses Association, 1994).
Standards of psychiatric nursing practice
Standards are criteria by which quality and quantity of work or activities may be measured. They provide basis for development of alternatives. In psychiatric nursing, 14 standards are developed and accepted universally all over the world. These standards are established to provide quality and quantity of care to the psychiatric patients.
The ANA Standards of Psychiatric-Mental Health Clinical Nursing Practice (2000:.
A. Standards of care
Standard I: Assessment- Collects the data that is comprehensive, accurate and systematic.
Standard II: Diagnosis- Analyzes the assessment data as well as utilizes nursing diagnoses and standard classification of mental disorder to express conclusions and also supported by current scientific premises.
Standard III: Outcome identification- Identifies the expected outcomes individualized to the client.
Standard IV: Planning- Develops a plan of care with specific goals and interventions to each client needs.
Standard V: Implementation- Implements the interventions that promote, maintain or restore physical and mental health and prevent illness and effect rehabilitation.
Standard 5a. Coordination of care
The psychiatric mental health registered nurse coordinates care delivery.
Standard 5 b. Health teaching and health promotion
The psychiatric mental health registered nurse employs strategies to promote health and a safe environment.
Standard 5c: Milieu Therapy
Provides structures and maintains a therapeutic environment in collaboration with patients, families and other health care clinicians
Standard 5 d. Pharmacological,biological and complementary interventions
The psychiatric-mental registered nurse uses knowledge of pharmacological, biological and complementary interventions and applies clinical skills to restore the patient’s health and prevent further disability
Standard 5e: Prescriptive Authority and Treatment
The psychiatric/mental health nurse uses prescriptive authority, procedures and treatments in accordance with state and federal laws and regulations to treat symptoms of psychiatric illness and improve functional health status.
Standard 5f: Psychotherapy
The psychiatric/mental health nurse uses individual, group and family psychotherapy and other therapeutic treatments to assist patient in preventing mental illness and disability, treating mental health disorders and improving mental health status and functional abilities.
Standard 5g: Consultation
The psychiatric/mental health nurse provide consultation to enhance the abilities of other clinicians to provide services for patients and effect change in system
Standard 5h: Counseling
Uses counseling interventions to assist clients in regaining or improving their previous coping abilities.
Standard 5i: Promotion of self-care activity
Nurse structures interventions around the patient’s activities of daily living to foster self- care, and mental and physical well-being.
Standard 5j: Case Management
Coordinate comprehensive health services and ensures continuity of care.
Standard VI: Evaluation-
evaluation of the patient progress, change in the health status, effects of nursing interventions and expected outcomes are evaluated by the psychiatric nurse.
B. Standards of professional performance
l . Quality of practice- The psychiatric mental health registered nurse systematically enhances the quality and effectiveness of nursing practice.
2. Education-The psychiatric mental health registered nurse attains knowledge and competency that reflects current nursing practice.
3. Professional practice evaluation– The psychiatric mental health registered nurse evaluates his/her own practice in relation to the professional practice standards and guidelines, relevant statutes, rules, and regulations.
4. Collegiality– The psychiatric mental health registered nurse interacts with and contributes to the professional development of peers and colleagues.
5. Ethics-The psychiatric mental health registered nurse integrates ethical provisions in all areas of practice.
6. Collaboration-The psychiatric mental health registered nurse collaborates with patients, family and others in the conduct of nursing practice.
7. Research-The psychiatric mental health registered nurse integrates research findings into practice.
8. Resource utilization- The psychiatric mental health registered nurse considers factors related to safety effectiveness, cost, and impact on practice in the planning and delivery of nursing services. 9
9. Leadership-The psychiatric mental health registered nurse provides leadership in the professional practice setting and the profession