It implies major illness of the neonate from birth to first four weeks of life. Important causes of morbidity are due to
(a) Prematurity and low birth weight
(b) Birth asphyxia and birth trauma
Perinatal Mortality definition: Perinatal mortality defined as deaths among fetuses weighing 1000 g or more at birth (28 weeks gestation) who die before or during delivery or within the first 7 days of delivery. The perinatal mortality rate is expressed in terms of such death per 1000 total births.
Epidemiological: Age over 35 years, Teenagers, Parity above 5, Low socioeconomic condition Poor maternal nutritional status.
Medical disorders: Anemia, Diabetes, Hypertension, Malaria, Syphilis.
Obstetric complications: Antepartum hemorrhage, Pre-eclampsia, Eclampsia,Rh-isoimmunization, cervical incompetence.
Complications of labour: Dystocia from disproportion, malpresentation, abnormal uterine action; premature-rupture of membranes.
Feto-placental factors: Multiple pregnancy, congenital malformation, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, preterm labor, preterm rupture of membrane.
Causes of Perinatal mortality
Infections: sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, neonatal tetanus, congenital syphilis.
Birth asphyxia, trauma, hypothermia, Preterm birth, low birth weight, Congenital malformation.
Prevention of perinatal mortality
Pre-pregnancy health care and counseling, Genetic counseling, Regular antenatal care
Detection and management of medical disorders in pregnancy, Screening of high risk cases Careful monitoring, Skilled birth attendant, Provision of referral neonatal services Health care education of mother about the care of newborn.