Colon carcinoma: aeitiology CRAPS:
Chronic ulcerative colitis
Ratio of animal fat:fibre diet
Strong family history of colon cancer.
Kawasaki Disease Criteria “Be careful when riding a
Kawasakimotorcycle, you might get CREAMed.
Rash (polymorphous non-vesicular)
Edema (or erythema of hands or feet)
Adenopathy (cervical, often unilateral) Mucosal involvement (erythema or fissures or crusting) To have Kawasaki disease you must have fever for greater than 5 days plus
4 of the above.
Neurofibromatoses: chromosome mutation locations in von Reckinghausen (type I) vs. type II“von Recklinghausen” has 17 letters and is due to a mutation on chromosome 17. “Neurofibromatosis type 2” has 22 and is due to a mutation on chromosome 22.
Wernickes encephalopathy: components WACO:
· Wernickes is:
Confusion (or clouded consciousness)
Ocular problems · Note: Waco is the town in Texas, USA made famous for a standoff with a
Koresh and the Branch Davidians.
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): causes ARDS:
Aspiration/ Acute pancreatitis/ Air embolism/ Amniotic
embolism Radiation DIC/ Drugs/ Drowning/ Dialysis/ Diff use lung infection Shock/ Sepsis/ Smoke inhalation
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad WASTER:
Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome is:
Recurrent staphlococcal infections
Cardiovascular risk factors
Running (exercise) Adiposity (obesity)
Insulin resistance (diabetes)
Non-regulated lipids (dyslipidaemia)
Georgie Pie (high fat diet)
Macrocytosis: Non-B12/folate causes ALPHA NERD:
Liv er disease
Hemaolysis (especially chronic)
Neoplasia (including myelodysplasia)
Drugs (especially myelosuppressives like chemotherapy, anti-HIV meds)
Osteomyelitis: complications FIBRES:
Intraosseous (broidie) abscesses
Bacteremi/ Brodie abscess
Sinus tracts/ Squamous cell CA
Polycystic ovarian disease: clinical features OHIO:
Microcytic anemia: causes “Find Those Small
Hirsutism vs. virilism
Hirsutism: Hair on body like a male.
Virilism: Voice and rest of secondary sexual characteristics like a male.
Megaloblastic anemia: vitamin B12 deficiency vs. folate deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency also affects Brain (optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, paresthesia). · Folate deficiency is not associated with neurological symptoms.
Symptoms of TTP/HUS “Nasty Fever Ruined My Tubes”:
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia Thrombocytopenia
Hemophilia: type A factor Hemophilia A: problems with VIII factor (number V as an inv erted A).
Thyroid carcinoma: frequency “Please Feel My A$$”:
In order of most frequent to least frequent, and in order from least aggressive to most aggressive: Papillary carcinoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma Anaplastic carcinoma Cardiovascular risk factorsFLASH BODIES:
Diabetes mellitus Inflammation (raised CRP)/ Increased thrombosis Exercise
Hypokalaemia: clinical features TIMID CHIMP: Tetany
Increases paralytic ileus (aggravates)
Increases possibility of hepatic encephalopathy Digoxin toxicity
Increases P-R interval, T wave and prominent U wave Muscle cramps Poly uria
Diabetes: short list of complications SHAKE:
Ey es (vision loss)
Nephritic syndrome: glomerular diseases commonly presenting as nephritic syndrome PARIS:
· Alternatively: PIG ARMS to include Goodpasture’s [one cause of RPGN], Membranoproliferative [only sometimes included in the classic nephritic list].
Osteosarcoma: features PEARL HARBOR:
Paget’s disease (10-20%)*
Early age (10-20 yrs)
Raised periosteum by expanding tumor: “sunburst pattern” Lace-like architecture
Hy aline arteoriosclerosis
Alkaline phosphatase increased
Boy s, predominantly
Radiation* · Sunburst pattern was Japanese Navy emblem during WWII.
*: Predisposing factors.
Edwards’ syndrome: characteristicsEDWARDS:
Digit ov erlapping flexion
Absent intellect (mentally retarded)
Small lower jaw
Fragile X syndrome: features FEMALES
Long face with large jaw
Ev erted eyes Second most common casue of genetic mental retardation
Achalasia: 1 possible cause, 1 treatment aCHAlasia:
1 possible cause: CHAgas’ disease
1 treatment: Ca++ CHAnnel blockers
Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs.
chronic diseaseTIBC lev els at the:
Colon cancer: risk factors HULA:
Heridity/ Heriditary diseases
Low fibre, high fat diet Adenomatous polyps
COPD: blue bloater vs. pink puffer diseases emPhysema has letter P (and not B) so Pink Puffer. chronic Bronchitis has letter B (and not P) so Blue Bloater.
Macrocytic anaemia: differential FAT RBC:
Thyroid disease(ie hypothyroidism)
B12 and folate deficiency
Cirrhosis and chronic liver disease