RISK FOR INJURY
At risk of injury as a result of environmental conditions interacting with the individual’s adaptive and defensive resources.
§ Biological: Community immunization level; microorganisms
§ Chemical: Cosmetics; drugs, pharmaceutical agents; dyes; alcohol, nicotine, preservatives; poisons
§ Human: Nosocomial agents; staffing patterns; cognitive, affective, psychomotor factors
§ Nutritional: Food types, vitamins
§ Physical: Design, structure, and arrangement of community, building, and/or equipment
§ Mode of transport
§ Abnormal blood profile: Altered clotting factors; decreased hemoglobin; leukocytosis/leucopenia; sickle cell; thalassemia; thrombocytopenia
§ Biochemical dysfunction
§ Immune or autoimmune disorder
§ Developmental age: physiological and/or psychosocial
§ Tissue hypoxia
The patient will
· Acknowledge presence of environmental hazards in their everyday surroundings.
· Take safety precautions in and out of home.
· Instruct children in safety habits.
· Childproof house to ensure safety of young children and cognitively impaired adults.
Interventions and Rationales:
Help patient identify situations and hazards that can cause accidents to increase patient’s awareness of potential dangers.
Arrange environment of patient with dementia to minimize risk of injury:
· Place furniture against walls.
· Avoid use of throw rugs.
Maintain lighting so that patient can find her way around room and to bathroom. Poor lighting is a major cause of falls.
Prevent iatrogenic harm to hospitalized patient by following the 2007 National Patient Safety goals. This resource provides comprehensive measures designed to prevent harm.
Follow agency policy regarding the use of restraints—they are generally used as a last resort after ot her measures have failed. Agency policies will provide clear direction to use restraints safely.
Encourage adult patient to discuss safety rules with children to foster household safety. For example:
· Don’t play with matches.
· Use electrical equipment carefully.
· Know location of the fire escape route.
· Don’t speak to strangers.
· Dial 911 in an emergency.
Encourage patient to make repairs and remove potential safety hazards from environment to decrease possibility of injury.
Refer patient to appropriate community resources for more information about identifying and removing safety hazards. This enables patient and family to alter environment to achieve optimal safety level.
Bright, L. (2005, January). Strategies to improve the patient safety outcome indicator: Preventing or reducing falls. Home Healthcare Nurse, 23(1), 29–36. Yuan, J. R., & Kelly, J. (2006, February). Falls prevention, or “I think I can, I think I can”: An ensemble approach to falls management. Home Healthcare Nurse, 24(2), 103–111