NURSING AS A PROFESSION
DEFINITION & CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROFESSION
l . A “profession” is defined as a vocation in which skill based on theoretical knowledge acquired through higher education, is applied to the affairs of others in order to meet their needs.
2. Profession has been defined as an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill and preparation.
– Kozier B.
3. A profession is regulated by a professional body which sets examinations of competence, acts as licensing authority for practitioners, and enforces adherence to an ethical code.
4. A Profession is an occupation based on specialized intellectual study and training. The purpose of which is to supply skilled service with ethical components to others for a definite fee or salary.
How the profession differs from other kinds of occupation….???????
TWO TERMS RELATED TO PROFESSION
What is “professionalism”?
It refers to professional character, spirit, or methods. It is a set of attributes, a way of life that implies responsibility and commitment.
What is “professionalization”?
It is the process of becoming professional, that is, of acquiring characteristics
Considered to be professional.
Characteristics of a Profession:
· Specialized Education
· Body of knowledge
· Service Orientation
· Ongoing Research
· Code of ethics
· Professional Organization
“Rich” lists 7 Characteristics of Profession:
1. Requires a high degree of general & systematized knowledge.
2. Require a long period of specialized intellectual training.
3. It is characterized by work that is essentially intellectual.
4. Provides a unique social service (Specific service)
5. Controls its standards of entrance & exclusion
6. Develops & enforces a professional code of ethics.
7. Grants practioners a broad range of autonomy.
“Five characteristics of a professional”
1. Take advantage of every opportunity
2. Start by asking questions
3. Dedicate yourself
4. Use stories
5. Develop your persuasive powers.
DEFINITION & CONCEPTS OF NURSING
· The word ‘Nurse’ originated from the Latin Word nutrix, meaning “to nourish”.
· Person who nourishes, fosters, and protects and who is prepared to take care of sick, injured, and aged people.
· It is too limited — present expanding roles and functions
Definition of nursing:
1.) Nursing as the protection, promotion and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through diagnosis and treatment of human response; and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.
(This definition asserts the prominence and importance nursing holds in providing
health care to our community)
2.) Nursing is the unique function of the nurse, that is to assist the individual (sick or well) in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.
– International Council of Nurses (ICN).
3.) Nursing is a unique function of the nurse, that is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he/she would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength will or knowledge, and to do so in such a way as to help him/her to gain independence as rapidly as possible.
4.) Nursing is a dynamic, therapeutic and educative process in meeting the health needs of the individual, family and society.
Royal College of Nursing (UK), Defining Nursing will be useful to:
· describe nursing to people who do not understand it clarify the role of the nurse in the multidisciplinary health care team influence the policy agenda at local and national level
· develop educational curricula identify areas where research is needed to strengthen the knowledge base of nursing inform decisions about whether and how nursing work should be delegated to other personnel
· Support negotiations at local and national level on issues such as nurse staffing, skill mix and nurses’ pay.
Definition of Nursing by RCN-:
Nursing is the use of clinical judgement in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintain, or recover health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until death.
Royal College of Nursing (UK)
The characteristics derived from RCN definition are: Nursing has a
1. A particular purpose
2. A particular mode of intervention
3. A particular domain
4. A particular focus
5. A particular value base
6. A commitment to partnership
· It is a systematic process of problem diagnosis, problem analysis, development of plan of care and continuous assessment of evolving plan of care.
· It is an individualized plan based upon scientific principles and concepts in the form of understanding on the part of the nurses and the utilization of specialized skills and techniques for the care of the “whole patient”, that is to say meeting the physical, psychological, spiritual, economical and intellectual needs of the patient.
A nursing theory is a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing communicated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting and/or prescribing nursing care
“4” Major Concepts of nursing:
Person:It refers to all human beings. People are recipients of nursing care; they include families, community and groups.
Environment:It includes factors that affect individuals internally and externally. It means not only everyday surroundings but also settings where nursing care is provided.
Health: It generally addresses the person’s state of well-being. Nursing: The concept of nursing is central to all nursing theories.
Selected Nursing Theory Concepts:
Nightingale’s Theory (1860)
Goal of nursing: To facilitate “the body’s reparative process” by manipulating client’s environment.
Framework for practice: nurse manipulates client’s environment to include noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, comfort, socialization and hope.
Peplau’s theory (1952)
· Focuses on the individual, the nurse, and the interactive process. The result is the nurse-client relationship.
· The client is an individual with a need, and nursing is an interpersonal and therapeutic process.
Goal of nursing: develop interaction between nurse and client.
Framework for practice: nursing is a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process. Nurses participate in structuring health care systems to facilitate interpersonal relationships
Henderson’s theory (1955): It defines nursing as “assisting the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities that will contribute to health, recovery, or a peaceful death and that the individual would perform unaided if he or she had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge.
The goal is “independence”
Framework of practice:nurses help client to perform Henderson’s 14 basic needs. Roger’s theory (1970)
Goal of nursing: Maintain and promote health, prevent illness, and care for and rehabilitate ill and disabled client through “humanistic science of nursing”.
Framework of practice: Unitary man evolves along life process. Clients continuously changes and coexist with environment.
Orem’s theory (1971)
Dorothea Orem’s self care deficit theory focuses on client’s self care needs.
Goal of nursing: care for and help client attain total self care.
Framework of practice: nursing care is necessary when the client is unable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental, or social needs.
Leninger’s theory (1978)
Leninger’s cultural care diversity and universality theory states that care is the essence of nursing and dominant, distinctive, and unifying future of nursing.
Goal of nursing: provide care consistent with the nursing’s emerging science and knowledge with caring as central focus.
Framework of practice: caring is the central and unifying domain for nursing knowledge and practice.
Roy’s theory (1979)
Sister calista Roy’s adaptation theory views the client as an adaptive system.
Goal of nursing:identify types of domains placed on client, assess adaptation to demands, and help client adapt.
Framework of practice: based on the physiological, psychological, sociological, and dependence-independence adaptive models.
King’s theory (1971)
Goal of nursing: Use communication to help client reestablish positive adaptation to environment.
Framework of practice: Nursing is a dynamic interpersonal process between nurse, client, and health care system.
Betty Neuman’s theory (1972)
Goal of nursing: assists individuals, families, and groups in attaining and maintaining maximal level of total wellness by purposeful interventions.
Framework of practice: stress reduction is goal of systems model of nursing practice.
Nursing actions are in primary, secondary, or tertiary level of prevention.
Watson’s theory (1979)
Jean Watson’s philosophy of transpersonal caring defines the outcome of nursing activity in regard to the humanistic aspects of life.
Goal of nursing: Promote health, restore client to health, and prevent illness.
Framework of practice: Involves the philosophy and science of caring; caring is an interpersonal process comprising interventions to meet human needs.
Brenner and Wrubel (1989)
Goal of nursing: Focus on client’s need for caring as a means of coping with stressors of illness.
Framework of practice: Caring is central to the essence of nursing. Caring creates the possibilities for and enables possibilities connecting with and concern for other.