· Hemorrhage: Postpartum hemorrhage, Antepartum hemorrhage, Abortion, ectopic pregnancy.
· Infection: Due to premature rupture of membranes, prolonged and obstructed labor.
· Hypertension: Pre-eclampsia, Eclampsia.
· Unsafe abortion
· Obstructed labor: Cephalo-pelvic disproportion, abnormal lie or malpresentation
· Other causes: Viral hepatitis
Factors associated with maternal mortality
· Age: In the young adolescent, pregnancies carries a higher risk due to pre-eclampsia, Cephalo-pelvic disproportion and uterine inertia. In women aged 35 years or above the risk is 3-4 times higher.
· Parity: Risk is slightly more in primigravida but it is 3 times greater in para, 5 or above where postpartum hemorrhage, malpresentations and rupture uterus are more common. The risk is lowest in the second pregnancy.
· Socioeconomic strata: Mortality ratios are higher in women belonging to low socioeconomic strata.
· Antenatal care: No antenatal care- highest mortality.
· Substandard care: Highest mortality.