WHO defines Disaster as “any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services, on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area.”
A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or man-made that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance. – American Red Cross (ARC)
DISASTER: combination of two words: ‘des’ meaning evil and ‘astre’ meaning star it means evil star.
A complete definition of disaster provided by Turner in 1976- ‘an event, concentrated in time and space, which threatens a society or a sub-division of a society with major unwanted consequences as a result of the collapse of precautions which had hitherto been culturally accepted as adequate’
‘DISASTER’ alphabetically means:
D – destructions
I – Incidents
S – Sufferings
A – administrative, Financial Failures.
E – Eruption of Communicable diseases.
R – Research programme and its implementation
Causes and types of disaster : NATURAL AND MANMADE
· Volcanic eruptions
· Forest fires
· Hurricanes etc.
· Terrorism : Biochemical/war
Ø A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus clouds or in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Ø Tsunami : Is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, generally an ocean or a large lake
Ø Forest fire : “Forest fire” means a fire burning uncontrolled on lands covered wholly or in-part by timber, bush, grass, grain, or other flammable vegetation.
Ø Floods : An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land.
Ø Volcanic Eruption: A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary mass object, such as the Earth, which allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface
Ø Earth quake : An earthquake (also as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates waves.
Ø Cyclone/ typhoon/hurricane : A cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth
Ø Typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone
Ø Hurricane – deadliest and most destructive
Ø Blizzards : A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong sustained of at least 56 km/h (35 mph) and lasting for a prolonged period of time — typically three hours or more
Ø Mudslides/ landslide/ rockslides: A mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 or 50 mph) and fluid type of downhill mass wasting-lt is a rapid movement of a large mass of mud formed from loose dirt and water.
Ø Draugh/Famine:A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including crop failure, population unbalance, or governmental policies.this phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, epidemic, and increased mortality. Drought is an extended period when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply whether surface or undergound .
Ø Hail: Pellets of frozen rain which fall in showers
Man made disasters : Engineering Failures Bridges, Buildings, Dams
Transportation: Planes, Trains, Automobiles, Shipping
· Oil spills, pollution, waste runoff
· War-Biochemical/ nuclear attack
· Industrial explosion