Development of psychiatry In India
l. Psychiatry in Indian systems of medicine
500 B.C Ayurveda:
· Charak Samhita described psychiatric illness as ‘Bhoothavidya’ and also explained etiological factors as exogenous and endogenous.
· Hereditary and personality considered endogenous factors, stress, fear, gods and devils are considered exogenous factors.
· The description of personality is to be in terms of sathvik, Rajasik & Tamasik representing intellectual & moral, emotional & passionatic & impulsive respectively & Tamsik is more or less near mental subnormality or angry.
· Treatment specified as sympathy, spiritual prayers, medications (use of 10 to 100 years old medicated ghee, Drugs Cordfolia, horse radish (shigru) with asafoetida & rock salt, centella Asiatic (brahmi) with catechu & honey & powder of roots of serpentine) and scalding.
· Bhagavadgitha in 4th century B.C first recorded evidence of psychotherapy. (Psychotherapy, crisis interventions) & importance of doctor-patient relationship was practiced.
· Atreya (800 BC)- First great Indian physician
· Ashoka- 274-235 B.C- constructed hospitals for mentall ill in his capitals .
Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC) predicted that the body fluids will control individual’s emotions. He analyzed hot bile in the body is the root cause for production of desires. Talkativeness, chattering and suicidal impulses. Treatment of melancholia is by catharsis and music therapy.
Hippocrates (460-375 BC) identified melancholia, depression, excitement, hysteria and mania. Reasons for mental illness were: Hereditary, brain tumours, disequilibrium in the body fluids. Treatment modalities are tranquil life, psychological reassurance, dietary modifications etc.
Plato (429-347) stated the organic, moral and divine forces will influence the normative behaviour of an individual. He comprehended the relationship between body and mind and narrated the dreams are the royal roads of desires.
Pythogorous (510-580 BC) formulated the concept that the brain is the base of intellectual activity.
Najabuddin Unhammad (1222 A.D), an Indian physician, described seven types of mental disorders viz:-
1. Sauda-a-Tabee (Schizophrenia);
2. Muree Sauda (depression);
3. Ishk ( delusion of love);
4. Nisyan (Organic Inental disorder):
5. Haziyan (paranoid state);
6. Malikholia-a-maraki (delirium).
Psychotherapy was known as Ilaj-al-Nafsani in Unani Medicine.
‘Siddhi’ means achievement and Siddhas are men who have achieved results in medicine. as well as yoga and tapas. The great saga ‘Agastya’ described management of 18 types of mental disorders.
Psychiatric hospitals in India
· 1745- Bombay asylum -first asylum in India.
· 1787- Asylum in Calcutta
· 1898- Indian Lunatic Asylum Act is introduced. Act No. 36 provided guidelines for establishment of mental asylums& set procedure for admission, care & discharge of lunatics
· 1912- Indian Lunatic Act
· 1926 – 1st Mental Hospital in India was started at Ranchi.
· 1946- Bhore committee – 5 Mental Health Hospitals at Amrithsar (1947) Hyderabad (1953) Srinagar (1958) Jamnagar (1960) Delhi (1966) and National Institute of Mental Health And Neurosciences Bangalore (NIMHANS)
· 1947 – Indian Psychiatric Society Started. Dr. N.N. De was the first psychiatrist.
· 1958 – Indian Journal of psychiatry
· 1963- Community Mental health center act
· 1978- Alma – Ata declaration Health for all by 2000AD.
· 1980 – Indian Mental health professionals assessed and recommended mental health care.
· 1981-Community mental health center at Raipur, Ranchi, Chandigarh, (Sakalwara) Bangalore.
· 1982-National Mental Health Programme was introduced to ensure availability of minimum mental health care for all & to promote community participation.
· 1985- Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic drug Act was introduced
· 1987-Mental Health Act -Act No. 14 drafted in 1949 by 3 psychiatrists J. Roy, R.B.Davis & Dr Hasib. It replaces the old Indian Lunacy Act, 1 912 & envisages new nomenclature, new admission & care of mentally ill persons.
· 1988-Juvenile Justice Act
1988-Child Labour Act