· Hyperphosphatemia is a serum phosphorus level that exceeds normal.
· Renal failure.
· Chemotherapy agents
· High phosphate intake and Vitamin D
· Deposition of calcium- phosphate in skin, soft tissue, corneas, blood vessels.
· Vitamin D supplement
· Calcium-binding antacids, phosphate-binding gels or antacids
· Restriction of dietary phosphate and dialysis.