Refers to measures aimed at control and reduce the number or spread of microorganisms. It is also called as \”clean techniques\”. Using barriers and cleaning and sterilizing are important septic measures, but most important of all is hand hygiene. Medical asepsis practice includes hand hygiene, gloving, gowning and disinfection. Surgical Asepsis:
Refers to Sterile technique, to be sterile, an object must be free from all microorganisms. Sterile techniques are used to prevent the introduction or spread of pathogens from the environment. Surgical Procedures- when a body cavity is entered. When doing a sterile procedure like IV catheters, injections, urinary catheterization, irrigation of drainage tubes that enter in to the sterile body parts.
1. HAND HYGIENE:
Any infectious agent transmitted by the contact or droplet route can potentially be transmitted by touch. Microorganisms are either present on the hands most of the time (resident flora) or acquired during activities such as healthcare (transient flora).
Nothing is more effective than hand hygiene. Which includes either hand washing with soap and water or cleansing the hands with a waterless alcohol based cleanser.
Factor that contributes poor hand hygiene are
· Lack of patient activities such as checking blood pressure, checking vital signs.
· Common misconception that wearing gloves and gowns can substitute for hand hygiene.
· Understaffing and high workload
· Inaccessibility of the sinks or dispensers for soap or alcohol based cleanser.
· Skin irritation and dryness
Why Hand Hygiene is Important in Clinical setting?
Hands can become contaminated with infectious agents through contact with a patient, patient surroundings, the environment, or other healthcare workers. Cross-contamination can occur from one site to another in the same patient, between healthcare worker and patient, between patient or healthcare worker and the environment, or between healthcare workers. Practicing hand hygiene before every episode of patient contact (including between caring for different patients and between different care activities for the same patient) and after any activity or contact that potentially results in hands becoming contaminated (such as removal of gloves) reduces the risk of cross-contamination.
Transmission of pathogens by hands (picture insertion for each point)
§ Organisms present on patient skin or in the inanimate environment
§ Organism transfer to health-care workers’ hands
§ Organism survival on hands
§ Defective hand cleansing, resulting in hands remaining contaminated
§ Cross-transmission of organisms by contaminated hands
§ Failure to cleanse hands during patient care results within-patient cross transmission
When you have to perform Hand hygiene?
Five movements of hand hygiene
1. Before touching a patient
Clean your hands before touching a patient and their immediate surroundings to protect the patient against harmful germ from the hands of healthcare workers
2. Before a procedure
Clean the hand immediately before a procedure to prevent entering of harmful germs into the patient body.
3. After a procedure or a body fluids fluids exposure risk
Clean the hands immediately after procedure or body fluid exposure risk
4. After Touching a patient
Clean your hands before touching a patient and their immediate surroundings to protect the healthcare worker and health care surroundings.
5. After touching a patient soundings
Clean your hands after touching any object in a patient’s immediate surrounding’s when the patient has not been touched to protect the healthcare worker and health care surroundings.
Products used for hand hygiene
Hand hygiene using alcohol-based hand rubs is much more effective against the majority of common infectious agents on hands than hand hygiene with plain or antiseptic soap and water. Most published clinical studies that have demonstrated reductions in HAIs with the use of alcohol-based hand rubs have been associated with products that contain at least 80%, alcohol (ethenol (80%), isopropanol (70%)), 0.5% chlorhexidine and a skin emollient (Grayson et al 2009). Plain soaps act by mechanical removal of microorganisms and have no antimicrobial activity. They are sufficient for general social contact and for cleansing of visibly soiled hands.