ALTERATIONS IN RESPIRATIONS
1. Breathing Patterns
Tachypnea/ polypnea – quick, shallow breaths greater than 20 breaths/ min.
Bradypnea– abnormally slow breathing less than 12 breaths/ min
Apnea– Cessation of breathing.
Ease or effort
Orthopnea – Ability to breathe only in upright sitting or standing positions.
Dyspnea – Difficult and labored breathing during which the individual has a persistent, unsatisfied need for air and feels distressed.
Hyperventilation – Over expansion of lungs characterized by rapid and deep breaths
Hypoventilation – Under expansion of the lungs, characterized by shallow respiration
Cheyne – stokes breathing – respiratory rate and depth are irregular, characterized by alterating periods of apnea
Kussmaul’s respiration -Respirations are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate.
Biot’s respiration – Respirations are abnormally shallow for two to three breaths followed by irregular period of apnea
2. Breath sounds
Audible without Amplification
Stridor : A shrill ,harsh sound heard during inspiration with laryngeal obstructions.
Stertor : Snoring or sonorous respiration ,usually due to partial obstruction of the airway.
Wheeze: Continuous high pitched musical squek or whistling sound occurring on expiration and sometimes on inspiration when air moves through a narrowed or partially obstructed airway..
Bubbling: Gurgling sounds heard as air passes through moist secretions in the respiratory tract
Secretions and coughing
Hemoptysis – The presence of blood in the sputum
Productive cough – A cough accompanied by expectorated secretions
Non productive cough – A dry harsh cough without secretions
Intercostal retraction – in drawing between the ribs
Substernalretracton– in drawing beneath the breastbone
Suprasternal retraction – in drawing above the clavicles