Gastroenterology Mnemonics part 2

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Gastroenterology Mnemonics

Cholangitis features CHOLANGITITS:
Charcot's triad/ Conjugated bilirubin increase Hepatic abscesses/ Hepatic
(intra/extra) bile ducts/ HLA
B8, DR3
Obstruction
Leukocytosis
Alkaline phosphatase increase
Neoplasms
Gallstones
Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis)
Transaminase increase
Infection
Sclerosing


Charcot's triad
(gallstones) "Charge a FEE":
Charcot's triad is:
Fev er
Epigastric & RUQ pain Emesis & nausea


Haemachromatosis complications "HaemoChromatosis
Can Cause Deposits Anywhere":
Hy pogonadism
Cancer (hepatocellular)
Cirrhosis
Cardiomyopathy
Diabetes mellitus Arthropathy


Pancreatitis: criteria PANCREAS:
PaO2 below 8
Age >55
Neutrophils: WCC >15
Calcium below 2
Renal: Urea >16
Enzy mes: LDH >600; AST >200
Albumin below 32 Sugar: Glucose >10 (unless diabetic patient)


Pancreatitis: Ranson criteria for pancreatitis: at admission "GA LAW" (GA is abbreviation for the U.S. state of Georgia):
Glucose >200
AST >250
LDH >350
Age >55 y.o.
WBC >16000


Pancreatitis: Ranson criteria for pancreatitis: initial 48 hours "C & HOBBS" (Calvin and Hobbes):
Calcium < 8
Hct drop > 10%
Oxy gen < 60 mm
BUN > 5
Base deficit > 4
Sequestration of fluid > 6L Pancreatitis: Ranson criteria for pancreatitis at admission LEGAL:
Leukocytes > 16.000
Enzy me AST > 250
Glucose > 200
Age > 55
LDH > 350


GIT symptoms BAD ANAL S#!T:
Bleeding
Abdominal pain
Dy sphagia
Abdominal bloating
Nausea & vomiting
Anorexia/ Appetite changes
Lethargy
S#!ts (diarrhea)
Heartburn
Increased bilirubin (jaundice) 
Temperature (fever)


Crohn's disease: morphology, symptoms CHRISTMAS:
Cobblestones
High temperature
Reduced lumen
Intestinal fistulae
Skip lesions
Transmural (all layers, may ulcerate)
Malabsorption
Abdominal pain
Submucosal fibrosis


Dysphagia:
differential DISPHAGIA:
Disease of mouth and tonsils/ Diffuse oesophageal spasm/ Diabetes mellitus Intrinsic lesion
Scleroderma
Pharyngeal disorders/ Palsy-bulbar-
MND
Achalasia
Heart: eft atrium enlargement 
Goitre/ myesthenia Gravis/ mediastinal Glands
Infections 
American trypanosomiasis (chagas disease)


Ulcerative colitis: definition of a severe attack A STATE
Anemia less than 10g/dl 
Stool frequency greater than 6 stools/day with blood
Temperature greater than 37.5
Albumin less than 30g/L 
Tachycardia greater than 90bpm 
ESR greater than 30mm/hr


Vomiting: extra GI differential VOMITING:
Vestibular disturbance/ Vagal (reflexpain) 
Opiates 
Migrane/ Metabolic (DKA, gastroparesis, hypercalcemia) 
Infections
Toxicity (cytotoxic, digitalis toxicity)
Increased ICP, Ingested alcohol
Neurogenic, psychogenic 
Gestation


Pancreatitis (acute): causes I GET SMASHED:
Idiopathitic
Gallstones
Ethanol
Trauma
Steroids
Mumps
Autoimmune (PAN)
Scorpion stings
Hy perlipidemia/ Hypercalcemia
ERCP
Drugs (including azathioprine and diuretics) · Note: 'Get Smashed' is slang in some countries for drinking, and ethanol is an important pancreatitis cause.
· Note: Shortest answer is gallstones for women, and ethanol for men. And scorpian stings for people from Trinidad.


Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) cause is DNA
mismatch repair DNA mismatch causes a bubble in the strand where the two nucleotides don't match. This looks like the ensuing polyps that arise in the colon.


IBD: extraintestinal manifestations A PIE SACAphthous ulcers
Py oderma gangrenosum
Iritis
Erythema nodosum
Sclerosing cholangitis
Arthritis
Clubbing of fingertips


Digestive disorders: pH level With vomiting both the pH and food come up. With diarrhea both the pH and food go down.


H. Pylori treatment regimen (rough guidelines) "Please Make Tummy Better": Proton pump inhibitor
Metronidazole
Tetracycline
Bismuth
· Alternatively: TOMB:
Tetracycline
Omeprazole
Metronidazole Bismuth


Bilirubin: common causes for increased levels "HOT Liv er":
Hemolysis
Obstruction
Tumor
Liver disease


Ulcerative colitis: complications "PAST Colitis": 
Py oderma gangrenosum
Ankylosing spondylitis
Sclerosing pericholangitis
Toxic megacolon
Colon carcinoma


Charcot's triad (gallstones) "Charcot's Triad is 3 C's":
Color change (jaundice)
Colic (biliary) pain, aka RUQ pain Chills and fever 

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