Mode of transmission


Mode of transmission
Vehicle: the of microorganisms by way of vehicles, or contaminated items that transmit pathogens. Eg; food can carry salmonella, blood can carry hepatitis, HIV.
Droplet Transmission: occurs when the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, or conjunctiva are exposed to secretions of an infected person who is coughing, sneezing or talking. Examples of infectious agents that are transmitted via droplets include influenza virus and meningococcus.
Airborne transmission: occurs when fine particles are suspended in the air for a longer time or when dust particles contain pathogens.
Examples of infectious agents that are transmitted via the airborne route include measles (rubeola) virus, chickenpox (varicella) virus and M. tuberculosis.
Vector borne: vectors are biological or mechanical.
·         Biological vectors are living creatures that carry pathogens, such as rats, insects, or Birds Eg; Malaria.
·         Mechanical vectors inanimate objects that are contaminated with infected body fluids. Central line catheters, which are used for medications, blood draws and total parenteral nutrition and ventilators.
Factors have contributed resistant microbial organisms:          
·         Over prescription of antibiotics
·         Use of inappropriate antibiotics for the infecting organism
·         Incomplete use of antibiotics prescriptions
·         Harboring and spreading od resistant organisms
·         Increased use of antibiotics in farming thus contaminating milk and meat.
The life cycle of pathogens is frequently described as an uninterrupted chain of events. To spread the disease they must grow, reproduce and move from one source to another.
Interventions are directed at stopping the transmission from the source to the directed at stopping the transmission from the source to the patient controlling other links in the chain, thereby controlling infection. Interruption of this cycle is a strategy to limit the spread of infection. Transmission of infectious agents within a healthcare setting requires the following elements.
Infectious agent:
Microbial agent which may be bacteria, Virus, fungus, Prion or parasite.
Infection is depending on following factors;
·         Pathogenicity: organisms ability to harm and to cause disease.
·         Virulence: the vigor with which the organism grow and multiply.
·         Invasiveness: organisms ability to enter the tissue.
·         Specificity: organisms attraction to a specific host.
The source of organisms are called reservoirs, are elements in the environment.
·          Inanimate objects includes medications, food, air water or any other material on which organisms find nourishment and survive.
·          Human sources include other patients, healthcare personnel family members, visitors and patient themselves.
·          Carriers: people who are in incubation or having active disease and able to harbor the pathogens but have no symptoms of disease
·          Animals: insects, rats (leptospirosis), influence virus A (birds)
Portal of Entry:
·          Organism gaining access in to the host. Pathogens enter the susceptible hosts through body orifices such as the mouth, nose, eyes, vagina, rectum or urethra.
·          Break into the skin and mucus membrane from wounds or abrasions increase the opportunities for organisms to enter hosts.
·          Central venous catheters, for long term IV therapies or tubes for gastric feeding.
Normally each Individual have their own defenses that protect the body from infection. These defenses can be categorized as nonspecific and specific. Nonspecific defenses protect the person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure. Specific (immune) defenses, by contrast, are directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents.
·         Natural: nonspecific natural defenses
Individual factors
·         Heredity
·         Good hygiene practices
·         Good nutritional status
·         Immunization history
Anatomic Barriers
·         Intact skin
·         Intact mucous membranes
Mechanical removal of microorganisms
·         GI motility
·         Ciliary action in the respiratory tract
·         Cleansing effect of urine
·         Expulsive effect of coughing and sneezing
·         Lavaging effects of tears and saliva
·         Shedding of uterine lining in menstruation
Chemical factors
·         Acidity of gastric secretion, vaginal secretions and fatty acids of skin.
·         Lysozyme enzymes in tears, nasal secretion, urine and saliva.
Local tissue factors
·         Inflammation
WBC function
·         Fever
·         Phagocytosis

Acquired: specific acquired defenses

Another important defense against infection is immunity. Antigens are foreign particles Such as microbes, that enter a host.
In some cases such as in autoimmune diseases the immune system senses or recognizes the person’s own cells as antigens.
Cellular immunity (T lymphocytes)
Humoral immunity/ Antibody mediated immunity (B lymphocytes produce antibodies to specific microorganisms).



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item Mode of transmission
Mode of transmission
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