Communication can be both verbal and non-verbal.
Verbal communication:
·         In verbal communication, the tone of voice can communicate feelings and emotions that are as significant as the words being spoken.
·         Accordingly, it is important to choose words that do not offend in any way and that are easily understood. One should avoid using trigger words, jargon, medical or other sophisticated terms.
·         The use of particular languages may be important in reaching all sections of a community (for example., women may speak fewer languages than men,).
Non-verbal communication:
·         In non-verbal communication, body position, gestures and facial expression, often referred to as "body language", can communicate as much as words.
·         Service providers must also be aware of their own body language and the signals they may be unknowingly sending to users (e. g., movements or expressions that indicate fatigue, boredom, fear, frustration, indecision). It is important that the attitude conveyed by the service provider be compassionate and non-judgmental.

Community Participation in IEC activities:
It is important to involve the representatives from the community/community leaders to get an better co-operation from the community people while planning/conducting any IEC Programme. This will make the programme to be successful.

Counselling is a key component of an IEC programme. In the best of circumstances, a good counsellor is compassionate and non-judgmental, is aware of verbal and non-verbal communication skills.

Steps in Developing IEC Activities:
·         Conduct needs assessment
·         Set the goal
·         Establish behavioral objectives
·         Develop IEC activities and involve as many other partner’s as possible
·         Identify the potential barriers and ways  that to overcome them
·         Identify the potential partners, resources and other forms of support of your activities and gain their sustained commitments.
·         Establish a evaluation plan
·         Implement the planned activities
·         Evaluation

IEC messages:
·         Develop IEC messages. A good message is short, accurate and relevant. It will make, at the most, 3 points.
·         It should be disseminated in the language of the target audience and should use vocabulary appropriate for that audience.
·         Pretesting of the materials are to be done.

This is a strategy, which refers to the systematic attempt to modify/influence behavior, or practices, and environmental factors related to that behavior, which indirectly or directly promote health, prevent illness or protect individuals from harm.

·         Information, Education and Communication:
·         IEC is a process of working with individuals, communities and societies to:
§  develop communication strategies to promote positive behaviors which are appropriate to their settings.
·         Behavior Change Communication:
·         BCC is a process of working with individuals, communities and societies to:
§  develop communication strategies to promote positive behaviors which are appropriate to their settings; AND
§  provide a supportive environment which will enable people to initiate and sustain positive behaviors.
·         Interpersonal communication and counseling
·         Understanding Perceptions, attitudes and values
·         The skills of listening
·         Counseling

This is face-to-face communication between two people whereby one person helps another person make a decision or plan and act on it.

6 key steps which are summarized by the acronym “GATHER”

Steps in counseling:
The practical counseling process:
·         Six Important Steps in Counseling: “GATHER”
            1. GREET the clients (establishing rapport)
            2. ASK clients (gathering information)
            3. TELL (provide information)
            4. HELP the client make informed decision
            5. EXPLAIN to the client all the details
            6. RETURN/REFER/REALITY CHECK (Return
            visits or referrals should be planned where necessary)

Steps to Behavior Change:
·         Knowledge
·         Approval
·         Intention
·         Practice
·         Advocacy

Some factors that influence behavioral change:
·         Physical stimuli
·         Rational stimuli
·         Skills
·         Knowledge
·         Socio- cultural factors
·         Demographic-age, gender, etc
·         Previous experiences
·         Attitudes

·         Co-ordinator
·         Communicator
·         Record keeping and reporting
·         Counselor
·         Educator
·         Supervisor/team leader
·         Key member in health care team



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