Eye: Blindness

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Blindness

Low vision
  • Low vision is a general term describing visual impairment that requires patients to use devices and strategies in addition to corrective lenses to perform visual tasks.
  • Low vision is defined as a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/70 to 20/200
  • Impaired vision is accompanied by difficulty in performing functional activities.
  • Individuals with visual acuity of 20/80 to 20/100 with a visual field restriction of 60 degrees to greater than 20 degrees can read at a nearly normal level with optical aids.
  • Their visual orientation is near normal but requires increased scanning of the environment (ie, systematic use of head and eye movements).
  • In a visual acuity range of 20/200 to 20/400 with a 20-degree to greater than 10 degree visual field restriction, the individual can read slowly with optical aids. His or her visual orientation is slow, with constant scanning of the environment; individuals in this category have vision.
  • Blindness is defined as a BCVA of 20/400 to no light perception. The clinical definition of absolute blindness is the absence of light perception.


Visual Field
  • Patients with a visual field radius no greater than 1 0 degrees but greater than 5 degrees around central fixation should be placed in category 3, and patients with a field no greater than 5 degrees around central fixation in category 4- even if the central acuity is not impaired.  
Causes
  • Cataract (62.6%)
  • Posterior Capsular Opacification (0.90%)
  • Refractive Error (19.70%)
  • Corneal Blindness (0.90%)
  • Posterior Segment Disorder(4.70%),  
  • Glaucoma (5.80%)
  • Surgical Complication (l .20%)
  • Others (4.19%)
Management
  • Reading and magnification
  • Large-print
  • Magnifying glasses
  • Braille
  • Talking books, Readers or reading machines, which convert printed text to speech or Braille.
  • Computers with special hardware such as scanners and refreshable Braille displays as well as software written specifically for the blind, such as optical character recognition applications and screen readers.
  • Mobility-Tools such as the white cane with a red tip - the international symbol of blindness
  • Lighter identification (ID) cane
  • Guide dogs



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notes.nursium.com: Eye: Blindness
Eye: Blindness
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