Triage is a process of prioritizing patients based on severity of their condition so as to treat as many as possible when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately.
Types of triage
A. Simple triage
B. Advanced triage
START( Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment). Uses "triage tags"
· Priority 1-Red
· Priority3- Green
· Prriority O -Black
Triage separates the injured into four groups:
· 0-- The deceased who are beyond help
· 1 --The injured who can be helped by immediate transportation
· 2--The injured whose transport can be delayed
· 3--Those with minor injuries, who need help less urgently
Doctors decide who will be treated first on basis Of priority. May leave the seriously injured with least chances of survival.
Priorities of Care and Triage Categories
Standardized triage categories are usually developed within each ED.: five levels of acuity.
Triage Level 1: Resuscitation
· Conditions requiring immediate nursing and Physician assessment.
· Any delay in treatment is potentially life- or limb -threatening. Airway compromise.
· Cardiac arrest
· Severe shock
· Cervical spine injury
· multisystem trauma.
· Altered level of consciousness (LOC) (unconsciousness).
Triage Level 2 - Emergent
· Conditions requiring nursing assessment and physician assessment within 15 minutes of arrival.
· head injuries
· Vomiting and diarrhea with dehydration.
· Severe trauma.
· lethargy or agitation,
· Fever in infants younger than 3 Months
· conscious overdose.
· Severe allergic reaction.
· Acute psychotic episode
· chemical exposure to the eyes.
· Severe headache,
· Chest pain.
· Any pain greater than 7 on a scale of 10.stroke with deficit
· Any sexual assault
· Severe asthma
· Any neonate age 7days or younger
· Abdominal pain in patients older than 50 years of age
Triage level 3 :Urgent
· Conditions requiring nursing and physician assessment within 30 minutes of arrival.
· Alert head injury with vomiting
· GI bleed with unstable vital signs.
· Mild to moderate asthma.
· History of seizure
· Moderate trauma.
· Alert on arrival
· Abuse or neglect.
Triage Level 4: Less Urgent
· Conditions requiring nursing and physician assessment within one hour. Alert head injury without vomiting.
· Minor trauma.
· Vomiting and diarrhea in patient above 2 yrs without evidence of dehydration.
· Minor allergic reaction.
· Chronic back pain.
Triage Level 5: Nonurgent
· Conditions requiring nursing and physician assessment two hours.
· minor trauma, not acute.
· Minor symptoms
· sore throat.
· chronic abdominal pain.