Thermal and frozen emergencies


Thermal emergencies
Heat Stroke
·        It can develop in people who have been exposed to high heat and humidity for too long and who are unaccustomed to them.
·        It is defined as the combination of hyperpyrexia (105 F) and neurologic symptoms.
·        It is caused by a shutdown or failure of the heat-regulating mechanism of the body
·        Make the person lie down
·        Apply cold compression
·        Elevate feet give
·        lots of fluids
·        use fan to decrease temperature
Other measures
·        Dialysis for renal failure.
·        Diuretics, such as mannitol (Osmitrol), to promote diuresis. Anticonvulsant agents to control seizures.
·        Potassium for hypokalaemia and sodium bicarbonate to correct metabolic acidosis  
·        Perform continuous ECG monitoring and frequent cardiovascular assessments for possible ischemia, infarction, and dysrhythmias  

 Frost Bite
Frost Bite: Exposure to extreme cold.
·        Local tissues are frozen Constriction of blood vessels leading to necrosis.
Frostbite may be classified as
1.     Frost nip (initial response to cold, reversible)
2.     Superficial frostbite
3.     Deep frostbite
1. Frost nip: History of gradual onset.
·        Skin appears white.
·        Numb, pain-free
·        Reversible
2.Superficial Frostbite
·        Damage is limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
·        The skin will appear white and waxy.
·        On palpation, the skin will feel stiff but the underlying tissue will be pliable, soft, and have its normal bounce.
·        Sesnstion is absent
3.Deep Frostbite
·        Skin will appear white, yellow-white, or mottled blue-white.
·        On palpation, the surface will feel frozen and the underlying tissue will feel frozen and hard.
·        The affected part is completely insensitive to touch
·        Remove all constricting clothing       
·        Rewarming
·        Place sterile gauze or cotton between affected fingers/toes to absorb moisture.
·        Elevate the part to help control swelling.    Use a foot cradle to prevent tissue injury
·        Restore electrolyte balance
·        Advise patient not to use tobacco.



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item Thermal and frozen emergencies
Thermal and frozen emergencies
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