BROAD CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
Drugs may be classified according to their chemical composition, clinical action, therapeutic effects, by the symptoms relieved by the drug.
Broad classification of drugs according to their action:
o Analgesics: Drugs used to relieve pain.
o Anaesthetics: Drugs which causes loss of sensation.
o Anthelmintic and vermifuges: Drugs which destroy and expel worms.
o Antipyretics: drugs which reduce fever.
o Antidotes: Substance used to counteract the effects of poison.
o Anti-infective: Act either to inhibit, kill or retard the growth of microorganisms.
o Anti-inflammatory: Helps to reduce the inflammation.
o Anti-coagulants: Substance which inhibit or decrease the blood clotting process.
o Anti-histamine: Agents which block the effect of histamines, thus prevent allergies.
o Antacids: Substance that react with hydrochloric acid to decrease the activity of gastric secretions.
o Anti convulsants: Used to treat or prevent convulsions, there for it is used for the treatment of epilepsy.
o Antibiotics: Products of living microorganism that have the ability to destroy or inhibit the growth of other organisms.
o Antidiarrheal: Agents used to treat the diarrhoea, either by detoxicating the noxious substances or by killing the gastrointestinal microorganisms, or merely soothe the irritated bowel mucosa and reduce the spasm.
o Antitussive: drugs that prevent the cough reflex, act directly on the cough centers of CNS.
o Anti-asthmatics: Drugs which provide symptomatic relief of asthmatic attack.
o Androgens: These are the hormones secreted by the testes and adrenal cortex. They are steroids which can be synthesized to produce the secondary male characteristics.
o Antipruritic: A drug that relieves itching.
o Antiphlogestics: A drug used to prevent the progress of inflammation.
o Antiseptics: A substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria.
o Anti-fungal (antimycotics): A drug which prevent the growth of fungi or destruction of fungi.
o Anti-spasmodic: An agent that relieves spasmodic pain or spasm of muscles.
o Antiemetic: Drug that relieves nausea and vomiting.
o Anti-tuberculin: Specific drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
o Anti-rheumatics: Drugs used to treat rheumatism.
o Astringent: A drug that causes the contraction of tissues and arrest the discharges.
o Bronchodilators: Medicines which relax muscles of the bronchioles by reducing the smooth muscle spasm or mucosal edema.
o Coagulants: Helps in clotting blood either by increased formation of the liver precursors or by the clotting factors present in the drug administered.
o Carminatives: Drugs which cause expulsion of gas from the stomach and intestine.
o Cathartics: Drugs used to evacuate the intestine. These are subdivided as follows.
o Laxatives: Have a mild action
o Purgatives: Powerful than laxatives.
o Drastics: Have a violent action.
o Hdragogues: produce copious watery stool.
o Diaphoretics: Drugs which increase the action of sweat glands.
o Diuretics: Which increase the flow of urine.
o Emetics: Drugs that produce vomiting.
o Oxytocins: Drugs which induce uterine contractions.
o Expectorants: Increase the bronchial secretion and aid in the expulsion of mucus.
o Hypnotics: Drugs that produce sleep.
o Hypotensive drugs: Drugs capable of reducing BP.
o Inotrops: Drugs that strengthen the heart contraction.
o Mydriatics: Drugs, capable of dilate the pupil of the eye.
o Myotics: Causes the contraction of the pupil of the eye.
o Muscle relaxants: Agents used to relax the stiffness of the muscles.
o Nasal decongestants: Drugs which produce shrinkage of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal congestion.
o Narcotics: Drugs that produce stupor or complete insensibility.
o Sedatives: Substances which lessen the body activity.
o Stimulators: Increases the functional activities of an organ or system.
o Tranquillizers: These class of drugs whose principal effect is to calm nervous, anxious, exited or disturbed clients without affecting the consciousness.
o Vasodilators: Drugs which dilate the blood vessel and consequently lowers the blood pressure.
o Vasoconstrictors: Drugs or agents that causes constriction of blood vessels with the effect of rising the BP.
o Biological: Medicinal preparations of a complex biologic nature. Their action depends on numerous phases of immunity. They include vaccines, serums, anti-toxins and antigens.
o Cholagogues: drugs which are supposed to increase the amount of bile secreted.
o Corticosteroids: hormonal drugs extracted from the adrenal cortex. They are grouped as
§ l. Glucocorti coids: which stimulate the conversion of proteins to carbohydrates.
§ 2. Mineralocorticoids: Which regulate the sodium and potassium metabolism
o Caustics: substances that are destructive to living tissue.
o Demulcents: Substances that soften, soothe and protect mucus membrane.
o Digestants: an agent that pron10te digestion
o Scabicides: topical anti-infectives used in the treatment of scabies
o Emnagogues: A drug that stimulates or favours menstrual discharge.
o Emollient: substances that smoothens, softens and protects the skin.
o Galactagogue: substances that increases the flow of milk.
o Haemostatics: an agent that stops haemorrhage.
o Hypoglycemics: drugs that lowers the blood sugar level.
o Haematinics: An agent which increases the haemoglobin content of the blood.
o Hormones: substitutes for body hormones
o Keratolytics: drugs that soften the horney layer of the skin and helps its removal
o Urinary antiseptics: Any one of the organic or inorganic compounds, when administered is secreted by the kidneys and either stops or inhibit the growth of bacteria in the urinary tract.
o Vermifuge: a drugs that expels worms or intestinal parasites.
o Stomachics or gastric tonics: drugs which increase appetite and promote digestion.
o Sedative expectorants: drugs which reduces cough and makes it more effective by soothing the inflamed respiratory mucosa.
o Stimulant expectorant: drugs used to increase bronchial secretion by irritating the bronchial mucosa.
o Sulphonamides: Anti-bacterial drug. It has a chemical resernblance to Para-amino-benzoic acid (PABA), a substance needed for the metabolism of microorganisms. Normal utilization of PABA is inhibited when sulphonamides are present.