Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation
An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture is known as personality disorder.
• According to a meta analysis done by Venkattaswamy M R et.al 1998
• Incidence of personality disorder in India is 0.6%
• More common in Urban population
• Common in males than females.
• Multiple personality disorders are common than single personality disorders
• DSM IV
- Clusters A-odd or eccentric
- Cluster B-dramatic, emotional, or erratic.
- Cluster C- anxious or fearful.
• ICD 10 F60-F69 Disorders of adult personality and behaviour
§ Emotionally unstable
v Twins and siblings of people with personality disorders have a higher chance of developing personality disorders
v Primary degree relative of paranoid schizophrenia patients have higher chance in developing paranoid type of personality disorder.
• Biological factors
v Neurochemical- Homovanillinic acid level increase in Schizotypal
v Decreased serotonin
v Decrease of Opioid receptors in brain.
v Poor ego and superego development
v Unresponsiveness or over protecting mothers
v Early separation
v Maternal deprivation
v Physical and sexual abuse
v Excessive use of repression
v Fixation in the oral stage
v Rejection by parents
“a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts” (APA, 2000).
• Hyper vigilant
• Ready for any real or imagined threat.
• Tense and irritable.
• Insensitive to the feelings of others.
• They avoid interactions with other people
• They always feel that others are there to take advantage of them.
• They trust no one.
• Attributing their shortcomings to others.
• They do not accept responsibility for their own behaviors and feelings and project this responsibility on to others.
• They are envious
It is characterized primarily by a profound defect in the ability to form personal relationships or to respond to others in any meaningful, emotional way
• Cold, aloof, and indifferent to others.
• They prefer to work in isolation and are unsociable, with little need or desire for emotional ties.
• Affective energy is spend in intellectual works.
• Appear shy, anxious, or uneasy.
• Inappropriately serious about everything and have difficulty acting in a light hearted manner.
• Their affect is commonly bland and constricted.
• Persons with schizotypal personality disorder are strikingly odd or strange, even to laypersons. Magical thinking, peculiar notions, ideas of reference, illusions, and de realization are part of a schizotypal person's everyday world.
• Aloof and isolated
• Behave in a bland and apathetic manner.
• Magical thinking, ideas of reference, illusions, and depersonalization are part of their everyday world.
• Convey accepting attitude
• Low level of stimuli
• Encourage to express feelings
• Calm attitude
• Limit setting
• Reinforce positive behaviour
• Help in gaining insight on his own behaviour
Antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behavior that reflects a disregard for the rights of others.
• These individuals exploit and manipulate others for personal gain
• A general disregard for the law.
• Difficulty in sustaining consistent employment and in developing stable relationships.
Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by colorful, dramatic, and extroverted behavior in excitable, emotional people
• Have difficulty maintaining long-lasting relationships
• They require constant affirmation of approval and acceptance from others.
• Manipulative and exhibitionistic behaviors in their demands to be the center of attention.
• Demonstrates socially accepted behaviours
• Failure to evoke the attention and approval results in feelings of dejection and anxiety.
• Interpersonal relationships are fleeting and superficial.
Persons with narcissistic personality disorder have an exaggerated sense of self-worth. They lack empathy, and are hypersensitive to the evaluation of others.
• Lack humility
• Self-centered and exploiting others to fulfil their own desires.
• View themselves as “superior” beings; they believe they are entitled to special rights and privileges.
• Grounded in grandiose distortions
• Impaired interpersonal relationships.
• Observe frequently
• Encourage to express feelings
• Rotate staff members to prevent dependence
• Set limits
• Practice giving and accepting positive criticisms
The individual with avoidant personality disorder is extremely sensitive to rejection and because of this may lead a very socially withdrawn life.
• Timid, withdrawn, or perhaps cold and strange.
• Desire to have close relationships
• Avoid relationship because of their fear of being rejected.
Dependent personality disorder is characterized by “a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation”
• Lack of self-confidence
• Passive and submissive role
• Let others make their important decisions.
• Avoids responsibility
• Become anxious when forced to do.
Obsessive compulsive personality
Individuals with obsessive–compulsive personality disorder are very serious and formal and have difficulty in expressing emotions. They are overly disciplined, perfectionist, and preoccupied with rules.
• Intense fear of making mistakes
• Accuracy and discipline
• Polite and formal social behaviour
• Involve in decision making
• Encourage group activities
• Avoid dependence
• Help in rehearsing informal interactions with assistance.
• Interpersonal psychotherapy
• Psychoanalytic psychotherapy
• Group psychotherapy