List of Common Drugs & Their Antidotes

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An antidote is a substance that can counteract a form of poisoning. The term antidote is a Greek word meaning “given against”. This post will help you familiarize with the common antidotes that are used in the hospital setting. The following are antidotes that should be familiarized by the medicos to respond to this emergency situation quickly.

Table of Antidotes

Antidote
Indication
Mode of Action
acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
Acetaminophen/ Tylenol/ Paracetamol
Restores depleted glutathione stores and protects against renal and hepatic failure.
Activated charcoal
Non-specific poisons except cyanide, iron, lithium, caustics and alcohol.
Absorption of drug in the gastric and intestinal tracts. Interrupts the entero-hepatic cycle with multiple dose.
albuterol inhaler, insulin & glucose, NaHCO3, kayexalate
Potassium

anticholinesterase agents
Neuromuscular blockade (paralytics)

atropine sulfate or pralidoxime
Anticholinesterase
Competitive inhibition of muscarinic receptors.
Benzylpenicillin
Amanita phalloides (Death cap mushroom)
Not known; partial protection against acute hepatic failure; may displace amatoxin from protein-binding sites allowing increased renal excretion; may also inhibit penetration of amatoxin to hepatocytes.
Calcium salts
Fluoride ingestion
Rapidly complexes with fluoride ion.
deferoxamine
Iron
Deferoxamine acts by binding free iron in the bloodstream and enhancing its elimination in the urine.
digibind
digoxine immune fab
Digoxin
Binds molecules of digoxin, making them unavailable for binding at their site of action on cells in the body.
dimercapol, edetate calcium, disodium,
Lead
Chelation of lead ions and endogenous metals (e.g., zinc, manganese, iron, copper).
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
A potent antagonist to acetylcholine in muscarinic receptors.
flumazenil
Benzodiazepines
Reverses the effects of benzodiazepines by competitive inhibition at the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAAreceptor.
fomepizole
Ethylene glycol
A competitive inhibitor of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase found in the liver. This enzyme plays a key role in the metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol.
glucagon
Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers
Stimulates the formation of adenyl cyclase causing intracellular increase in cycling AMP and enhanced glycogenolysis and elevated serum glucose concentration.
Glucose (Dextrose 50%)
Insulin reaction
Dextrose (the monosaccharide glucose) is used, distributed and stored by body tissues and is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water with the release of energy.
Heparin
Ergotamine
Reverses hypercoagulable state by interacting with antithrombin III. Used in combination with vasodilator phentolamine or nitroprusside to prevent local thrombosis and ischemia.
Hydroxocobalamin
Cyanide
Forms cyanocobalamin, a non-toxic metabolite that is easily excreted through the kidneys.
leucovorin calcium
Fluorouracil

Methotrexate
Protects the healthy cells from the effects of methotrexate while allowing methotrexate to enter and kill cancer cells.
Magnesium sulfate
calcium gluconate

mesna
Cyclophosphamide
A “chemoprotectant” drug that reduces the undesired effects of certain chemotherapy drugs.
Methylene blue
Chemical producing severe methemoglobinemia. Ifosamide-induced encephalopathy.
Reduces methemoglobin to hemoglobin.
nalmefene or naloxone
Opioid analgesics
Prevents or reverses the effects of opioids including respiratory depression, sedation and hypotension.
naloxone (Narcan)
Narcotics
Naloxone is believed to antagonize opioid effects by competing for the µ, κ and σ  opiate receptor sites in the CNS, with the greatest affinity for the µ receptor.
Neostigmine
Anticholinergics
Anticholinesterase which causes accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites.
Nitrite, sodium and glycerytrinitrate
Cyanide
Oxidizes hemoglobin to methemoglobin which binds the free cyanide and can enhance endothelial cyanide detoxification by producing vasodilation.
Penicillamine
Copper, gold, lead, mercury, zinc, arsenic
Chelation of metal ions.
phentolamine (Regitine)
Dopamine
Regitine produces an alpha-adrenergic block of relatively short duration. It also has direct, but less marked, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on cardiac muscle and vasodilator effects on vascular smooth muscle.
phyostigmine or NaHCO3
Tricyclic antidepressants
A reversible anticholinesterase which effectively increases the concentration of acetylcholine at the sites of cholinergic transmission.
Phytomenadione (Vitamin K.)
Coumadin/Warfarin
Bypasses inhibition of Vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme.
protamine sulfate
Heparin
Protamine that is strongly basic combines with acidic heparin forming a stable complex and neutralizes the anticoagulant activity of both drugs.
Pyridoxine
Isoniazid, theophylline, monomethyl hydrazine. Adjunctive therapy in ethylene glycol poisoning.
Reverses acute pyridoxine deficiency by promoting GABA synthesis. Promotes the conversion of toxic metabolite glycolic acid to glycine.
Snake anti-venin
Cobra bite
Neutralizes venom by binding with circulating venom components and with locally deposited venom by accumulating at the bite site.
Sodium Bicarbonate
Iron
Prevents convertion of ferrous to ferric.
Cardiotoxic drug affecting fast sodium channel (TCA, cocaine)
Decreases affinity of cardiotoxic drugs to the fast sodium channel.
Weak acids
Promotes ionization of weak acids.
Chlorine gas inhalational poisoning
Neutralization of hydrochloric acid formed when chlorine gas reacts with water in the airways.
Sodium thiosulphate
Cyanide
Replenishes depleted thiosulphate stores by acting as sulfur donor necessary for the conversion of CN-O to thiocyanate through the action of sulfur transferase enzyme rhodanese.
Thiamine
Alcohol, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
Reverses acute thiamine deficiency
Adjunctive in ethylene glycol
Enhances detoxification of glyoxylic acid.
Vitamin C
Chemicals causing methemoglobinemia in patients with G6PD deficiency
Reduces methemoglobin to hemoglobin.

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notes.nursium.com: List of Common Drugs & Their Antidotes
List of Common Drugs & Their Antidotes
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