Parkinsonism: essential features TRAPS: Tremor (resting tremor) Rigidity
Postural changes (stooped)
Stare (serpentine stare) · To remember what kind of tremor and postural change, can look at letter that follows in TRAPS: Tremor is Resting, Posture is Stooped.
Thrombus: possible fates DOPE:
Organization & repair
Turner syndrome: components CLOWNS:
Ov aries underdeveloped (causing sterility, amenorrhea)
Nipples widely spaced Short
MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI "Time to CALL 911":
· From first to appear to last:
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad "PET WASP":
Py rogenic infections
· WASP is the name of the causitive agent: Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein.
· Alternatively: Wiskott=Hot, Aldrich=Itch, Syndrom=Throm.
Sarcoidosis summarized SARCOIDOISIS:
Schaumann calcifications Asteroid bodies/ [ACE] increase/ Anergy Respiratory complications/ Renal calculi/ Restrictive lung disease/ Restrictive cardiomyopathy Calcium increase in serum and urine/ CD4 helper cells Ocular lesions
Immune mediated noncaseating granulomas/ [Ig] increase Diabetes insipidus/ [D v it.] increase/ Dyspnea Osteopathy
Skin (Subcutaneous nodules, ery thema nodosum)
Interstitial lung fibrosis/ IL-1 Sev enth CN palsy
Blood disorders: commoner sex HE (male) gets: HEmophilia (X-linked)
HEinz bodies (G6PD deficiency, causing HEmolytic anemia: X-linked) HEmochromatosis (male predominance) HEart attacks (male predominance) HEnoch-Schonlein purpura (male predominance) SHE (female) gets:
SHEehan's sy ndrome
Thyroid storm characteristics "Storm HITS girls cAMP":
Thyroid storm due to:
Infection or Illness at childbirth
· girls: Thyroid storm more common in females. · cAMP: Tx involves high dose of beta
blockers (beta receptors work via cAMP)
· Alternatively: "S#IT storm": Surgery, Hyperthyroidism, Infection/ Illness, Trauma.
Hypothyroidism/thyroiditis: maifestations and morphology "A SCHISM among the Axis during WWII":
Subacute thyroiditis Cretinism/ Cold intolerance/ Constipation Hashimoto's disease
My xedema coma
· The Axis: Schimidt syndrome (when other endocrinology disorders
Hashimoto's disease) and "Hitler cells"
(Hurthle cells, which are follicular epithelial cells with basophilic inculsions)
Pheochromocytoma: 3 most common symptoms "PHEochromocytoma":
Edisodic sweating (diaphoresis)
Necrosis: the 4 types "Life Can Get Complicated": Liquifactive Coagulation
· 'Life' used since necrosis is 'death'.
Thyroid carcinoma: features, prognosis of most popular Most Popular is Papillary. · Clinical features:
Palpable lymph nodes
"Pupil" nuclei (Orphan Annie)
Psammoma bodies within lesion
· Also, has a Positive Prognosis (10 y ear survival rate: 98%).
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: which has cobblestones Crohn's has Cobblestones on endoscopy.
Gout: factors that can precipitate an attack of acute gouty arthritis
· And, the attack occurs most often at night [thus "dark"].
Paget's disease of bone: signs and symptoms Four L's:
Larger hat size
Loss of hearing: due to compression of nerve
Leontiasis ossea (lion-like face)
Light-headed (Paget's steal) Wernicke-Korsakoff
triad Syndrome in alchoholics, who lov e to "drink CANs of beer":
Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis: findings COAT RACK:
· Wernicke's encephalopathy (acute phase): Confusion
Ophthalmoplegia Ataxia Thiamine tx. · Korsakoff's psy chosis (chronic phase):
Korsakoff's psy chosis
Atherosclerosis risk factors "You're a SAD BET with these risk factors":
Age: middle-aged, elderly
BP high: hypertension
Elev ated cholesterol Tobacco
Duchenne vs. Becker Muscular
Dystrophy Duchenne Muscular Dy strophy (DMD) : Doesn't Make Dy strophin.
Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD): Badly Made
Dy strophin (a truncated protein).
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
(MEN) subtype classification Each subtype has 2 or 3 causes, plus something 1 or 2 more items.
MEN I is disease of 3 P's: [Pituitary, Parathyroid, Pancreas] plus one more: adrenal cortex. MEN II is disease of 2 C's: [Carcinoma of thyroid, Catacholamines (pheochromocytoma)] plus two more: parathyroid for MEN IIa or mucocutaneous neuromas for MEN IIB (also called MEN III).
Takayasu's disease is Pulseless disease "Can't Tak'a ya pulse" (Can't take your pulse): Takayasu's disease known as Pulseless disease, since pulse is weakened in the upper extremities.
Hypercalcemia: symptoms of elevated serum levels "Bones, Stones, Groans, Moans":
Bones: pain in bones
Psy chic moans/ Psy chological overtones: confused state
Acute ischemia: signs [especially limbs] 6 P's: Pain
classification A: Asymptomatic B: Bad
Lichen planus characteristics Planus has 4 P's:
Hypertension: secondary hypertension causes CHAPS: Cushing's sy ndrome
Hy peraldosteronism [aka Conn's sy ndrome]
Stenosis of renal arteries
· Note: only 5% of hy pertension cases are secondary, rest are primary.
Hepatomegaly: 3 common causes, 3 rarer causes Common are
Carcinoma Cardiac failure
Rarer are 3 C's:
MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI "C-AST-Le"
AST second LDH third
· Also: can use the last 'E' for ESR.
Pulmonary embolism: risk factors TOM SCHREPFER:
Estrogen [pregnancy, post-partum] Road trip