Theories of Growth and Development : Cognitive development –Jean Piaget with Mnemonics


Cognitive development –Jean Piaget

Stage 1 Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years)

(movement , five senses )
·         Consists of six stages.

·         Progress from simple reflex activity through simple repetitive behaviors to imitative behavior.
·         Sense of cause and effect.
·         Direct behavior towards objects.
·         Problem solving is by trial and error.
·         High level of curiosity, experimentation & enjoyment of novelty.
·         Develops sense of self.
·         Able to differentiate themselves from the environment.
·         Aware that objects have permanence. 
·         Objects exists even though it is no longer visible.
·         Begin to use language.
Video: Piaget - Stage 1 - Sensorimotor, Object Permenence

Stage 2 Preoperational (2-7 years)

(magical/prelogical thinking; motor skills; egocentrisim starts strong, then weakens)
·         Egocentrism- inability to put oneself in the place of others.
·         Interpretation of objects in terms of their relationship and use.
·         Unable to see things from any other perspective their own.
·         Cannot see another's point of view.
·         Thinking is concrete and tangible.
·         Cannot reason beyond the observable.
·         Lack the ability to make deductions and generalizations.
·         Thought is dominated by what they see, hear or experience.
·         Increasingly able to use language and symbols to represent objects in their environment.
·         Play Begins to elaborate concepts and to make simple associations between ideas.
·         Reasoning is intuitive (moon has to go to bed as they do).
·         Reasoning is transductive: because 2 events occur together, they cause each other.
·         Big belly→baby.
Video:Piaget - Stage 2 - Preoperational - Lack of Conservation

Stage 3. Concrete operations (7-11 years)

(Begins to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking; no longer egocentric)
·         Thought becomes increasingly logical and coherent.
·         Able to classify, sort, order, organize facts about the world to use in problem solving.
·         Develop new concept of permanence-conservation. i.e. realize that physical factors such as volume, weight and number remain the same, even though outward appearances are changed. Able to deal with number of different aspects of a situation simultaneously.
·         Do not have a capacity to deal in abstraction.
·         Solve the problem in a concrete, systematic fashion based on what they can perceive.
·         Reasoning is inductive.
·         Thought becomes less self centered.
·         Can consider points of view of others.
·         Thinking has become socialized.
Video: Piaget - Stage 3 - Concrete - Reversibility

Stage 4. Formal operations (11-15 years)

development of abstract (adult-level) reasoning.
·         Adaptability and flexibility.
·         Can think in abstract terms, use abstract symbols and draw logical conclusions from a set of observations.
·         E.g. if A is larger than B and B is larger than C, which symbol is the largest?
·         Can make hypothesis and test them.
·         Can consider abstract, theoretic and philosophic matters
·         May get confuse the ideal with practical; contradictions in the world can be dealt and resolved.
Video:Piaget - Stage 4 - Formal - Deductive Reasoning

Some People Can Fly! Explanation: to remember Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, in order Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational

Other Relevant Videos: 

formal operational child :

Conservation task:




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item Theories of Growth and Development : Cognitive development –Jean Piaget with Mnemonics
Theories of Growth and Development : Cognitive development –Jean Piaget with Mnemonics
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